Breast carcinoma screening and risk perception among women at increased risk for breast carcinoma

Results from a national survey

Authors

  • Susan A. Sabatino M.D.,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    • Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Rose 105, Boston, MA 02215
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    • Fax: (617) 667-2854

  • Risa B. Burns M.D., M.P.H.,

    1. Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Roger B. Davis Sc.D.,

    1. Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Russell S. Phillips M.D.,

    1. Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Ya-Hua Chen M.S.,

    1. Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Ellen P. McCarthy Ph.D., M.P.H.

    1. Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
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Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Gail model is validated to estimate breast carcinoma risk. The authors assessed the association of Gail risk scores with screening and cancer risk perception.

METHODS

Using the 2000 National Health Interview Survey, the authors studied women ages 41–70 without a cancer history. Gail scores ≥ 1.66% defined increased risk. The authors used logistic regression to assess associations between breast carcinoma risk and previous and recent (≤ 1 year) mammography and clinical breast examination (CBE).

RESULTS

Of 6410 women, 15.7% had increased risk. High-risk women more frequently reported previous mammograms (94% vs. 85%; P < 0.0001), previous CBE (93% vs. 88%; P < 0.0001), recent mammograms (70% vs. 54%; P < 0.0001), recent CBE (71% vs. 61%; P < 0.0001), and high cancer risk perception (20% vs. 9%; P < 0.0001). However, 30% of high-risk women had not received a recent mammogram. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, access to care factors, and cancer risk perception, high-risk women remained more likely to have received recent mammography (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.45, 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.19–1.77), recent CBE (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08–1.61]), and previous mammography than average-risk women. The authors observed an interaction between risk and age, with women ages 41–49 years more frequently reporting previous mammography (OR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.55–4.81) than average-risk, same-age women. For women age ≥ 50 years, the odds of previous mammography were similar regardless of risk.

CONCLUSIONS

In a nationally representative sample, 15.7% of women had increased breast carcinoma risk using the Gail model. High-risk women perceived higher cancer risk and more often received screening. However, nearly one in three high-risk women did not receive recent screening and most of these women did not perceive increased risk. Cancer 2004. © 2004 American Cancer Society.

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