• 1
    Heaney M, Golde D. Myelodysplasia. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 16491660.
  • 2
    Albitar M, Manshouri T, Shen Y, et al. Myelodysplastic syndrome is not merely “preleukemia”. Blood. 2002; 100: 791798.
  • 3
    Steensma DP, Tefferi A. The myelodysplastic syndrome(s): a perspective and review highlighting current controversies. Leuk Res. 2003; 27: 95120.
  • 4
    Aul C, Gatterman N, Schneider W. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma. 1995; 16: 247262.
  • 5
    Nisse C, Haguenoer JM, Grandbastien B, et al. Occupational and environmental risk factors of the myelodysplastic syndromes in the North of France. Br J Haematol. 2001; 112: 927935.
  • 6
    Nagata C, Shimizu H, Hirashima K, et al. Hair dye use and occupational exposure to organic solvents as risk factors for myelodysplastic syndrome. Leuk Res. 1999; 23: 5762.
  • 7
    Kimura A, Takeuchi Y, Tanaka H, et al. Atomic bomb radiation increases the risk of MDS. Leuk Res. 2001; 25: S13.
  • 8
    Blair A, Zheng T, Linos A, et al. Occupation and leukemia: a population-based case-control study in Iowa and Minnesota. Am J Ind Med. 2001; 40: 314.
  • 9
    Dalamaga M, Petridou E, Cook E, et al. Risk factors for myelodysplastic syndromes: a case-control study in Greece. Cancer Causes Control. 2002; 13: 603608.
  • 10
    Park DJ, Koeffler HP. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes. Semin Hematol. 1996; 33: 256273.
  • 11
    Hosing C, Munsell M, Yazji S, et al. Risk of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome/ acute leukemia following high-dose therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Ann Oncol. 2002; 13: 450459.
  • 12
    Armitage JO, Carbone PP, Connors JM, et al. Treatment-related myelodysplasia and acute leukemia in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 897906.
  • 13
    Estey EH. Prognosis and therapy of secondary myelodysplastic syndromes. Haematologica. 1998; 83: 543549.
  • 14
    Ogata K, Nakamura K, Yokose N, et al. Clinical significance of phenotypic features of blasts in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2002; 100: 38873896.
  • 15
    Maladié M, Picard F, Husson B, et al. Immunophenotypic clustering of myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 2002; 100: 23492356.
  • 16
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, et al. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol. 1982; 51: 189199.
  • 17
    Verhoef GEG, Pittaluga S, Wolfe-Peters CDE, et al. FAB classification of myelodysplastic syndromes: merits and controversies. Ann Hematol. 1995; 71: 311.
  • 18
    Seymour J, Estey E. The contribution of Auer rods to the classification and prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma. 1995; 17: 7985.
  • 19
    Germing U, Gattermann N, Minning H, et al. Problems in the classification of CMML—dysplastic versus proliferative type. Leuk Res. 1998; 22: 871878.
  • 20
    Harris NJ, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, et al. World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: report of the Clinical Advisory Committee meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November 1977. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 38353849.
  • 21
    Estey E, Thall P, Beran M, et al. Effect of diagnosis (refractory anemia with excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation, or acute myeloid leukemia [AML]) on outcome of AML-type chemotherapy. Blood. 1997; 90: 29692977.
  • 22
    Howe RB, Porwit-MacDonald A, Wanat R, et al. The WHO classification of MDS does make a difference. Blood. 2004; 103: 32653270.
  • 23
    Greenberg P, Cox C, LeBeau MM, et al. International scoring system for evaluating prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 1997; 89: 20792088.
  • 24
    Estey E, Keating M, Pierce S, et al. Application of the international scoring system for myelodysplasia to M. D. Anderson patients. Blood. 1997; 90: 28432844.
  • 25
    Rosenfeld C, List A. A hypothesis for the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes: implications for new therapies. Leukemia. 2000; 14: 28.
  • 26
    Hoagland HC. Myelodysplastic (preleukemia) syndromes: the bone marrow factory failure problem. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995; 70: 673676.
  • 27
    Heyman MR. Recent advances in biology and treatment of myelodysplasia. Curr Opin Oncol. 1991; 3: 4453.
  • 28
    Adeyinka A, Dewald GW. Cytogenetics of chronic myeloproliferative disorders and related myelodysplastic syndromes. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2003; 17: 11291149.
  • 29
    Nilsson L, Astrand-Grundström I, Anderson K, et al. Involvement and functional impairment of the CD34+CD38-Thy-1+ hematopoietic stem cell pool in myelodysplastic syndromes with trisomy 8. Blood. 2002; 100: 259267.
  • 30
    Anderson K, Arvidsson I, Jacobsson B, Hast R. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the study of cell lineage involvement in myelodysplastic syndromes with chromosome 5 anomalies. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2002; 15: 101107.
  • 31
    Nimer SD, Golde DWP. The 5q− abnormality. Blood. 1987; 70: 1705.
  • 32
    Giagounidis AA, Germing U, Haase S, et al. Clinical, morphological, cytogenetic, and prognostic features of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and del(5q) including band q31. Leukemia. 2004; 18: 113119.
  • 33
    Washington LT, Jilani I, Estey E, Albitar M. Less apoptosis in patients with 5q−syndrome than in patients with refractory anemia. Leuk Res. 2002; 26: 899902.
  • 34
    Tomasson MH, Williams IR, Hasserjian R, et al. TEL/PDGFbR induces hematologic malignancies in mice that respond to a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Blood. 1999; 93: 17071714.
  • 35
    Gersuk GM, Beckham C, Loken MR, et al. A role for tumour necrosis factor-alpha, Fas and Fas-ligand in marrow failure associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. Br J Haematol. 1998; 103: 176188.
  • 36
    Allampallam K, Shetty VT, Raza A. Cytokines and MDS. Cancer Treat Rep. 2001; 108: 93100.
  • 37
    Barrett J, Saunthararajah Y, Molldrem J. Myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia: distinct entities or diseases linked by a common pathophysiology? Semin Hematol. 2000; 37: 1529.
  • 38
    Molldrem JJ, Leifer E, Bahceci E, et al. Antithymocyte globulin for treatment of the bone marrow failure associated with myelodysplastic syndromes. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137: 156163.
  • 39
    Killick SB, Mufti G, Cavenagh JD, et al. A pilot study of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in the treatment of patients with “low-risk” myelodysplasia. Br J Haematol. 2003; 120: 697684.
  • 40
    Maeck L, Haase D, Schoch C, et al. Genetic instability in myelodysplastic syndrome: detection of microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in bone marrow samples with karyotype alterations. Br J Haematol. 2000; 109: 842846.
  • 41
    Hofmann W-K, de Vos S, Komor M, et al. Characterization of gene expression of CD34+ cells from normal and myelodysplastic bone marrow. Blood. 2002; 100: 35533560.
  • 42
    [No authors listed.] NCCN practice guidelines for the myelodysplastic syndromes. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Oncology (Huntingt). 1998; 12(11A): 5380.
  • 43
    Cheson BD, Bennett JM, Kantarjian HM, et al. Report of an international working group to standardize response criteria for myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 2000; 96: 36713674.
  • 44
    Hellström-Lindberg E. Efficacy of erythropoietin in the myelodysplastic syndromes: a meta-analysis of 205 patients from 17 studies. Br J Haematol. 1995; 89: 6771.
  • 45
    Jadersten M, Montgomery SM, Astermark J, et al. Treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin: response and impact on survival in a long-term follow-up of 129 patients. Blood. 2003; 102: 184.
  • 46
    Hellström-Lindberg E, Gulbrandsen N, Lindberg G, et al. A validated decision model for treating the anaemia of myelodysplastic syndromes with erythropoietin + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant effects on quality of life. Br J Haematol. 2003; 120: 10371046.
  • 47
    Stasi R, Brunetti M, Terzoli E, Amadori S. Sustained response to recombinant human erythropoietin and intermittent all-trans retinoic acid in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 2002; 99: 15781584.
  • 48
    Steurer M, Sudmeier I, Stauder R, Gastl G. Thromboembolic events in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome receiving thalidomide in combination with darbepoetin-alpha. Br J Haematol. 2003; 121: 101103.
  • 49
    Smith R. Applications of darbepoetin-alpha, a novel erythropoiesis-stimulating protein, in oncology. Curr Opin Hematol. 2002; 9: 228233.
  • 50
    Yoshida Y, Nakahata T, Shibata A, et al. Effects of long-term treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Leuk Lymphoma. 1995; 18: 457463.
  • 51
    Negrin RS, Haeuber DH, Nagler A, et al. Maintenance treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes using recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood. 1990; 76: 3643.
  • 52
    Kurzrock R, Cortes J, Thomas DA, et al. Pilot study of low-dose interleukin-11 in patients with bone marrow failure. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 41654172.
  • 53
    Komatsu N, Okamoto T, Yoshida T, et al. Pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMDGF) increased platelet counts (plt) in patients (pts) with aplastic anemia (AA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Blood. 2000; 96: 296a.
  • 54
    Biesma DH, van den Tweel JG, Verdonck LF. Immunosuppressive therapy for hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome. Cancer. 1997; 79: 15481551.
  • 55
    Broliden PA, Dahl IM, Hast R, et al. ATG and cyclosporin A as combination therapy in myelodysplastic syndromes RA and RAEB. Blood. 2002; 100: 98a.
  • 56
    Yazji S, Giles F, Kantarjian H, et al. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Blood. 2002; 100: 794a.
  • 57
    Saunthararajah Y, Nakamura R, Wesley R, et al. A simple method to predict response to immunosuppressive therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2003; 102: 30253027.
  • 58
    Saunthararajah Y, Nakamura R, Nam J-M, et al. HLA-DR15 (DR2) is overexpressed in myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia and predicts a response to immunosuppression in myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2002; 100: 15701574.
  • 59
    Wang H, Chuhjo T, Yasue S, et al. Clinical significance of a minor population of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-type cells in bone marrow failure syndrome. Blood. 2002; 100: 38973902.
  • 60
    Steensma DP, Dispenzieri A, Breanndan S, et al. Antithymocyte globulin has limited efficacy and substantial toxicity in unselected anemic patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2003; 101: 21562158.
  • 61
    Beaupre DM, Kurzrock R. RAS and leukemia: from basic mechanisms to gene-directed therapy. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 17011079.
  • 62
    Lancet JE, Karp JE. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors in hematologic malignancies: new horizons in therapy. Blood. 2003; 102: 38803889.
  • 63
    Kurzrock R, Cortes J, Kantarjian H. Clinical development of farnesyl transferase inhibitors in leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. Semin Hematol. 2002; 29: 2024.
  • 64
    Kurzrock R, Kantarjian HM, Cortes J, et al. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor R115777 in myelodysplastic syndrome: clinical and biologic activities in the Phase 1 setting. Blood. 2003; 102: 45274534.
  • 65
    Kurzrock R, Albitar M, Cortes JE, et al. Phase II study of R115777, a farnesyl transferase inhibitor, in myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 12871292.
  • 66
    Feldman EJ, Cortes J, Holyoake TL, et al. Continuous oral lonafarnib (Sarasar™) for the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2003; 102: 421a.
  • 67
    Cortes J, Giles F, O'Brien S, et al. Results of imatinib mesylate therapy in patients with refractory or recurrent acute myeloid leukemia, high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and myeloproliferative disorders. Cancer. 2003; 97: 27602766.
  • 68
    Apperley JF, Gardembas M, Melo JV, et al. Response to imatinib mesylate in patients with chronic myeloproliferative diseases with rearrangements of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 481487.
  • 69
    Magnusson MK, Meade KE, Nakamura R, et al. Activity of STI571 in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with a platelet-derived growth factor β receptor fusion oncogene. Blood. 2002; 100: 10881091.
  • 70
    Pitine V, Arrigo C, Teti D, et al. Response to STI571 in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with platelet derived growth factor beta receptor involvement: a new case report. Haematologica. 2003; 88: ECR18.
  • 71
    Scappaticci FA. Mechanisms and future directions for angiogenesis-based cancer therapies. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 39063927.
  • 72
    Albitar M. Angiogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Acta Haematol. 2001; 106: 170176.
  • 73
    Dvorak HF. Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor: a critical cytokine in tumor angiogenesis and a potential target for diagnosis and therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 43684380.
  • 74
    Thomas DA, Giles FJ, Cortes J, et al. Antiangiogenic therapy in leukemia. Acta Haematol. 2001; 106: 190207.
  • 75
    Thomas DA, Kantarjian HM. Current role of thalidomide in cancer treatment. Curr Opin Oncol. 2000; 12: 564573.
  • 76
    Zorat F, Shetty V, Dutt D, et al. The clinical and biological effects of thalidomide in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol. 2001; 115: 881894.
  • 77
    Raza A, Meyer P, Dutt D, et al. Thalidomide produces transfusion independence in long-standing refractory anemias of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 2001; 98: 958965.
  • 78
    Moreno-Aspitia A, Geyer S, Li C-Y, et al. N998B: multicenter Phase II trial of thalidomide (Thal) in adult patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Blood. 2002; 100: 96a.
  • 79
    Corral LG, Haslett PA, Muller GW, et al. Differential cytokine modulation and T cell activation by two distinct classes of thalidomide analogues that are potent inhibitors of TNF alpha. J Immunol. 1999: 163: 380386.
  • 80
    List AF, Kurtin S, Glinsmann-Gibson B, et al. Efficacy and safety of CC5013 for treatment of anemia in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Blood. 2003; 102: 184a.
  • 81
    Giles FJ, Stopeck AT, Silverman LR, et al. SU5416, a small molecule tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, has biologic activity in patients with refractory acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 2003; 102: 795801.
  • 82
    Foran J, Paquette R, Copper M, et al. A Phase I study of repeated oral dosing with SU11248 for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia who have failed or are not eligible for conventional chemotherapy. Blood. 2002; 100: 558a.
  • 83
    Roboz GJ, List AF, Giles F, et al. Phase I trial of PTK787/ZK222584, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2003; 102: 361a.
  • 84
    Gotlib J, Jamieson CHM, List A, et al. Phase II study of bevacizumab (anti-VEGF humanized monoclonal antibody) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): preliminary results. Blood. 2003; 102: 425a.
  • 85
    List AF, Kurtin S, Callander N, et al. Randomized, double-blind Phase II study of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, AG3340 (Prinomastat™) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2002; 100: 789a.
  • 86
    Tsimberidou AM, Giles FJ. TNF-alpha targeted therapeutic approaches in patients with hematologic malignancies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2002; 2: 277286.
  • 87
    Raza A. Anti-TNF therapies in rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, sepsis, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Microsc Res Tech. 2000; 50: 229235.
  • 88
    Neumunaitis J, Rosenfeld C, Getty L, et al. Pentoxifylline and ciprofloxacine in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. A Phase II trial. Am J Clin Oncol. 1995; 18: 189193.
  • 89
    Deeg HJ, Gotlib J, Beckham C, et al. Soluble TNF receptor fusion protein (etanercept) for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome: a pilot study. Leukemia. 2002; 16: 162164.
  • 90
    Maciejewski JP, Ristiano AM, Sloand EM, et al. A pilot study of the recombinant soluble human tumour necrosis factor receptor (p75)-Fc fusion protein in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Br J Haematol. 2002; 117: 119126.
  • 91
    Rosenfeld CS, Bedell C. Pilot study of recombinant human soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR:Fc) in patients with low risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Leuk Res. 2002; 26: 721724.
  • 92
    Raza A, Lisak LA, Tahir S, et al. Hematologic improvement in response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy with Remicade® in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Blood. 2003; 100: 795a.
  • 93
    Stasi R, Amadori S. Infliximab chimeric anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol. 2002; 116: 334337.
  • 94
    List A, Beran M, DiPersio J, et al. Opportunities for Trisenox® (arsenic trioxide) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia. 2003; 17: 14991507.
  • 95
    List AF, Schiller GJ, Mason J, et al. Trisenox® (arsenic trioxide) in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): preliminary findings in a Phase 2 clinical study. Blood. 2003; 102: 423a.
  • 96
    Vey N, Dreyfus F, Guerci A, et al. Trisenox® (arsenic trioxide) in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): preliminary results of a Phase 1/2 study. Blood. 2003; 102: 422a.
  • 97
    Jones PA, Baylin SB. The fundamental role of epigenetic events in cancer. Nat Rev Genet. 2002; 3: 415428.
  • 98
    Aoki E, Uchida T, Ohashi H, et al. Methylation status of the p15INK4B gene in hematopoietic progenitors and peripheral blood cells in myelodysplastic syndromes. Leukemia. 2000; 14: 586593.
  • 99
    Silverman LR, Demakos EP, Peterson BL, et al. Randomized controlled trial of azacytidine in patients with the myelodysplastic syndrome: a study of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 24292440.
  • 100
    Kornblith AB, Herndon JE, Silverman LR, et al. Impact of azacytidine on the quality of life of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome treated in a randomized Phase III trial: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 24412452.
  • 101
    Jones PA, Taylor SM. Cellular differentiation, cytidine analogs and DNA methylation. Cell. 1980; 20: 8593.
  • 102
    Wijermans PW, Krulder JW, Huijgens PC, et al. Continuous infusion of low-dose 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine in elderly patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukemia. 1997; 11(Suppl 1): S19S23.
  • 103
    Lubbert M, Wijermans P, Kunzmann R, et al. Cytogenetic responses in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome following low-dose treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Br J Haematol. 2001; 114: 349357.
  • 104
    Wijermans P, Lubbert M, Verhoef G, et al. Low-dose 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent, for the treatment of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a multicenter Phase II study in elderly patients. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 956962.
  • 105
    Wijermans PW, Luebbert M, Verhoef G. Low dose decitabine for elderly high risk MDS patients: who will respond? Blood. 2002; 100: 96a.
  • 106
    Daskalakis M, Nguyen TT, Nguyen C, et al. Demethylation of a hypermethylated p15/INK4B gene in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome by 5-aza-2′-deoxycitidine (decitabine) treatment. Blood. 2002; 100: 29572964.
  • 107
    Issa JP, Garcia-Manero G, Giles FJ, et al. Phase I study of low-dose prolonged exposure schedules of the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) in hematopoietic malignancies. Blood. 2004; 103: 16351640.
  • 108
    Kuendgen AM, Strupp C, Tapprich C, et al. Valproic acid alone or in combination with All-trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA) for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and sAML/MDS. Blood. 2003; 102: 428a.
  • 109
    Marcucci G, Bruner RJ, Binkley PF, et al. Phase I trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor depsipeptide (FR901228) in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2002; 100: 86a.
  • 110
    Feldman EJ, Seiter KP, Ahmed T, et al. Homoharringtonine in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MDS evolving to acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia. 1996; 10: 4042.
  • 111
    Heinrich MC, Druker BJ, Curtin PT, et al. A “first in man” study of the safety and PK/PD of an oral FLT3 inhibitor (MLN518) in patients with AML or high risk myelodysplasia. Blood. 2002; 100: 336a.
  • 112
    Cortes JE, Estey E, Giles F, et al. Phase I study of bortezomib (PS-341), VELCADE™), a proteasome inhibitor, in patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. Blood. 2002; 100: 560a.
  • 113
    Estey EH, Fisher T, Giles F, et al. A randomized Phase II trial of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PKC412 in patients (pts) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) characterized by wild-type (wt) or mutated FLT3. Blood. 2003; 102: 614a.
  • 114
    [No authors listed.] Glutathione based approaches to improving cancer treatment. Chem Biol Interact. 1998; 24: 111112.
  • 115
    Faderl S, Kantarjian H, Estey E, et al. Hematologic improvement following treatment with TLK199 (a novel glutathione analog inhibitor of GST P1-1) in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): interim results of a Phase 1–2a study. Blood. 2003; 102: 426a.
  • 116
    de Witte T, Suciu S, Peetermans M, et al. Intensive chemotherapy for poor prognosis myelodysplasia (MDS) and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) following MDS of more than 6 months duration. A pilot study by the Leukemia Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer (EORTC-LCG). Leukemia. 1995; 9: 18051811.
  • 117
    Estey E. Treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Semin Hematol. 1995; 32: 132.
  • 118
    Beran M, Estey E, O'Brien S, et al. Topotecan and cytarabine is an active combination regimen in myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 28192830.
  • 119
    Guilhot F, Bouabdallah R, Desablens B, et al. Topotecan, cytosine arabinoside and G-CSF (TAG) versus idarubicin, cytosine arabinoside and G-CSF (IDAG) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or MDS in transformation: a randomized Phase III Study. Blood. 2002; 100: 98a.
  • 120
    Beran M, Shen Y, Kantarjian H, et al. High-dose chemotherapy in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome—covariate-adjusted comparison of five regimens. Cancer. 2001; 92: 19992015.
  • 121
    Appelbaum FR, Anderson A. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome: outcomes analysis according to IPSS score. Leukemia. 1998; 12 (Suppl 1): S25S29.
  • 122
    Runde V, de Witte T, Arnold R, et al. Bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings as first-line treatment in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: early transplantation is associated with improved outcome. Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1998; 21: 255261.
  • 123
    Sierra J, Perez WS, Rozman C, et al. Bone marrow transplantation from HLA-identical siblings as treatment for myelodysplasia. Blood. 2002; 200: 19972004.
  • 124
    Castro-Malaspina H, Harris RE, Gajewski J, et al. Unrelated donor marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: outcome analysis in 510 transplants facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program. Blood. 2002; 99: 19431951.
  • 125
    Deeg HJ, Storer B, Slattery JT, et al. Conditioning with targeted busulfan and cyclophosphamide for hemopoietic stem cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Blood. 2002; 100: 12011207.
  • 126
    Ho AYL, Kenyon M, El-Hemaidi I, et al. Reduced-intensity allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 75 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes following conditioning with fludarabine, busulphan and alemtuzumab. Blood. 2003; 102: 78a.
  • 127
    Alyea EP, Kim HT, Cutler C, et al. AML and MDS treated with nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation: overall and progression free survival comparable to myeloablative transplantation. Blood. 2003; 102: 79a.
  • 128
    Stuart MJ, Cao TM, Sandmaier BM, et al. Efficacy of non-myeloablative allogeneic transplant for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) (except chronic myelogenous leukemia). Blood. 2003; 102: 185a.
  • 129
    Martino R, Van Biezen A, Iacobelli S, et al. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-identical siblings in adults with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): a comparison with standard myeloablative conditioning: a study of the EBMT-Chronic Leukemia Working Party (EBMT-CLWP). Blood. 2003; 102: 184a.
  • 130
    Diaconescu R, Flowers C, Storer B, et al. Morbidity and mortality with nonmyeloablative compared to myeloablative conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA matched related donors. Blood. 2003; 102: 77a.
  • 131
    Kroger N, Brand R, van Biezen A,et al. Autologous stem cell transplantation for treatment related MDS/AML. A report of the Chronic Leukemia Working Party (CLWP) of the EBMT. Blood. 2003; 102: 43a.
  • 132
    De Witte TM, Hagemeijer A, Suciu S, et al. The impact of post-remission therapy on outcome of patients with poor-risk MDS and secondary AML treated with intensive chemotherapy with or without stem cell transplantation in a Joint Study (CRIANT) of the EORTC, EBMT, SAK, HOVON, Scandinavian, and the Gimema Leukemia Groups. Blood. 2003; 102: 185a.