Stereotactic irradiation (STI) has been actively performed using various methods to achieve better local control of Stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in Japan. The authors retrospectively evaluated results from a Japanese multiinstitutional study.
Patients with Stage I NSCLC (n = 245; median age, 76 years; T1N0M0, n=155; T2N0M0, n=90) were treated with hypofractionated high-dose STI in 13 institutions. Stereotactic three-dimensional treatment was performed using noncoplanar dynamic arcs or multiple static ports. A total dose of 18–75 gray (Gy) at the isocenter was administered in 1–22 fractions. The median calculated biologic effective dose (BED) was 108 Gy (range, 57–180 Gy).
During follow-up (median, 24 months; range, 7–78 months), pulmonary complications of National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria Grade > 2 were observed in only 6 patients (2.4%). Local progression occurred in 33 patients (14.5%), and the local recurrence rate was 8.1% for BED ≥ 100 Gy compared with 26.4% for < 100 Gy (P < 0.05). The 3-year overall survival rate of medically operable patients was 88.4% for BED ≥ 100 Gy compared with 69.4% for < 100 Gy (P < 0.05).
Hypofractionated high-dose STI with BED < 150 Gy was feasible and beneficial for curative treatment of patients with Stage I NSCLC. For all treatment methods and schedules, local control and survival rates were better with BED ≥ 100 Gy compared with < 100 Gy. Survival rates in selected patients (medically operable, BED ≥ 100 Gy) were excellent, and were potentially comparable to those of surgery. Cancer 2004. © 2004 American Cancer Society.