• 1
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Systemic treatment of early breast cancer by hormonal, cytotoxic or immune therapy: 133 randomised trials involving 31,000 recurrences and 24,000 deaths among 75,000 women. Lancet. 1992; 339: 115.
  • 2
    [No authors listed.] Adjuvant tamoxifen in the management of operable breast cancer: the Scottish trial. Report from the Breast Cancer Trials Committee, Scottish Cancer Trials Office (MRC), Edinburgh. Lancet. 1987; 2: 171175.
  • 3
    Nolvadex Adjuvant Trial Organisation. Controlled trial of tamoxifen as single adjuvant agent in management of early breast cancer. Analysis at six years. Lancet. 1985; 1: 836840.
  • 4
    Rutqvist LE, Cedermark B, Glas U, et al. The Stockholm trial on adjuvant tamoxifen in early breast cancer. Correlation between estrogen receptor level and treatment effect. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1987; 10: 255266.
  • 5
    Fisher B, Redmond C, Brown A, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy with and without tamoxifen in the treatment of primary breast cancer: 5-year results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Trial. J Clin Oncol. 1986; 4: 459471.
  • 6
    Fisher B, Costantino J, Redmond C, et al. A randomized clinical trial evaluating tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen receptor-positive tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 479484.
  • 7
    Fisher B, Constantino JP, Wickerham L, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998; 90: 13711388.
  • 8
    McDonald CC, Stewart HJ, for the Scottish Breast Cancer Committee. Fatal myocardial infarction in the Scottish adjuvant tamoxifen trial. BMJ. 1991; 303: 435437.
  • 9
    McDonald CC, Alexander FE, Whyte BW, et al. Cardiac and vascular morbidity in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen for breast cancer in a randomized trial. BMJ. 1995; 311: 977980.
  • 10
    Rutqvist LE, Mattsson A, for the Stockholm Breast Cancer Study Group. Cardiac and thromboembolic morbidity among postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer in a randomized trial of adjuvant tamoxifen. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993; 85: 13981406.
  • 11
    Constantino JP, Kuller LH, Ives DG, Fisher B, Dignam J. Coronary heart disease mortality and adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997; 89: 776782.
  • 12
    Reis SE, Constantino JP, Wickerham DL, Tan-Chiu E, Wang J, Kavanah M. Cardiovascular effects of tamoxifen in women with and without heart disease: Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 1621.
  • 13
    Shapira DV, Kumar NB, Lyman GH. Serum cholesterol reduction with tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1990; 17: 37.
  • 14
    Love RR, Wiebe DA, Newcomb PA, et al. Effects of tamoxifen on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 115: 860864.
  • 15
    Morales M, Santana N, Soria A, et al. Effects of tamoxifen on serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1996; 40: 265270.
  • 16
    Bruning PF, Bonfrer JM, Hart AAM, et al. Tamoxifen, serum lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk. Br J Cancer. 1988; 58: 497499.
  • 17
    Dewar JA, Horobin JM, Preece PE, et al. Long term effects of tamoxifen on blood lipid values in breast cancer. BMJ. 1992; 305: 225226.
  • 18
    Thangaraju M, Kumar K, Gandhirajan R, Sachdanandam P. Effect of tamoxifen on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Cancer. 1994; 73: 659663.
  • 19
    Bagdade JD, Wolter J, Subbaiah PV, Ryan W. Effects of tamoxifen treatment on plasma lipids and lipoprotein lipid composition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990; 70: 11321135.
  • 20
    Wasan KM, Ramaswamy M, Haley J, Dunn BP. Administration of long-term tamoxifen therapy modifies the plasma lipoprotein-lipid concentration and lipid transfer protein I activity in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. J Pharm Sci. 1997; 86: 876879.
  • 21
    Guetta V, Lush RM, Figg WD, Waclawiw MA, Cannon RO III. Effects of the antiestrogen tamoxifen on low-density lipoprotein concentrations and oxidation in postmenopausal women. Am J Cardiol. 1995; 76: 10721073.
  • 22
    Love RR, Wiebe DA, Feyzi JM, Newcomb PA, Chappell RJ. Effects of tamoxifen on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women after 5 years of treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994; 86: 15341539.
  • 23
    Castelli WP. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease. Am J Med. 1984; 76: 412.
  • 24
    Stamler J, Wentworth DN, Neaton JD. Is the relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous or graded? Findings in 356,222 primary screenees of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). JAMA. 1986; 256: 28232828.
  • 25
    Grundy SM. Cholesterol and coronary heart disease: future directions. JAMA. 1990; 264: 30533059.
  • 26
    Law MR, Wald NJ, Wu T, Hackshaw A, Bailey A. Systematic underestimation of association between serum cholesterol concentration and ischaemic heart disease in observational studies: data from the BUPA study. BMJ. 1994; 308: 363366.
  • 27
    Law MR, Wald NJ, Thompson SG. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? BMJ. 1994; 308: 367372.
  • 28
    Witztum JL. The oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis. Lancet. 1994; 344: 793795.
  • 29
    Shewmon DA, Stock JL, Rosen CJ, et al. Tamoxifen and estrogen lower circulating lipoprotein(a) concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women. Arterioscler Thromb. 1994; 14: 15861593.
  • 30
    Shewmon DA, Stock JL, Abusamra LC, Kristan MA, Baker S, Heiniluoma KM. Tamoxifen decreases lipoprotein(a) in patients with breast cancer. Metabolism 1994; 43: 531532.
  • 31
    Wiseman H, Paganga G, Rice-Evans C, Halliwell B. Protective actions of tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen against oxidative damage to human low-density lipoproteins: a mechanism accounting for the cardioprotective action of tamoxifen? Biochem J. 1993; 292: 635638.
  • 32
    Wiseman H, Cannon M, Arnstein HR, Barlow DJ. The structural mimicry of membrane sterols by tamoxifen: evidence from cholesterol coefficients and molecular-modelling for its action as a membrane anti-oxidant and an anti-cancer agent. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992; 1138: 197202.
  • 33
    The Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke. JAMA. 2002; 288; 20152022.
  • 34
    Stampfer MJ, Manilow MR, Willet WC, et al. A prospective study of plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of myocardial infarction in US physicians. JAMA. 1992; 268: 877881.
  • 35
    Arnesen E, Resfum H, Bonaa KH, et al. Serum total homocysteine and coronary heart disease. Int J Epidemiol. 1995; 24: 704709.
  • 36
    Boushey CJ, Beresford SAA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA. 1995; 274: 10491057.
  • 37
    Graham IM, Daly LE, Refsum HG, et al. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: the European Concerted Action Project. JAMA. 1997; 277: 17751781.
  • 38
    Vasan RS, Beiser A, D'Agostino RB, et al. Plasma homocysteine and risk for congestive heart failure in adults without prior myocardial infarction. JAMA. 2003; 289: 12511257.
  • 39
    Cattaneo M, Baglietto L, Zighetti ML, et al. Tamoxifen reduces plasma homocysteine levels in healthy women. Br J Cancer. 1998; 77: 22642266.
  • 40
    Anker G, Lonning PE, Ueland PM, et al. Plasma levels of the atherogenic amino acid homocysteine in post-menopausal women with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. Int J Cancer. 1995; 60: 365368.
  • 41
    Love RR, Surawicz TS, Williams EC. Antithrombin III level, fibrinogen level, and platelet count changes with adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1992; 152: 317320.
  • 42
    Bertelli G, Pronzato P, Amoroso D, et al. Adjuvant tamoxifen in primary breast cancer: influence on plasma lipids and antithrombin III levels. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1988; 12: 307310.
  • 43
    Kukreja RC, Hess ML. The oxygen free radical system: from equations through membrane-protein interactions to cardiovascular injury and protection. Cardiovasc Res. 1992; 26: 641655.
  • 44
    Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew TE, Khoo JC, Witztum JL. Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 915924.
  • 45
    Riemersma RA, Wood DA, MacIntyre CCA, Elton RA, Grey KF, Oliver MF. Anti-oxidants and pro-oxidants in coronary heart disease. [letter] Lancet. 1991; 337: 677.
  • 46
    Regnstrom J, Nilsson J, Tornvall P, Landou C, Hamsten A. Susceptibility to low-density lipoprotein oxidation and coronary atherosclerosis in man. Lancet. 1992; 339: 11831186.
  • 47
    Lamont EB, Christakis NA, Lauderdale DS. Favorable cardiac risk among elderly breast carcinoma survivors. Cancer. 2003; 98: 210.
  • 48
    Garcia Rodriguez LA, Perez Gutthann SP. Use of the UK general practice research database for pharmacoepidemiology. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1998; 45: 419425.
  • 49
    Jick H, Jick SS, Derby LE. Validation of information recorded on general practitioner based computerised data resource in the United Kingdom. BMJ. 1991; 302: 766768.
  • 50
    Jick H, Terris BZ, Derby LE, Jick SS. Further validation of information recorded on a general practitioner based computerized data resource in the United Kingdom. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety. 1992; 1: 347349.
  • 51
    Jick SS, Kaye JA, Vasilakis-Scaramozza C, et al. Validity of the general practice research database. Pharmacotherapy. 2003; 23: 686689.
  • 52
    Brewster DH, Thomson CS, Hole DJ, Black RJ, Stroner Pl, Gillis CR, on behalf of the Scottish Cancer Therapy Network. Relation between socioeconomic status and tumour stage in patients with breast, colorectal, ovarian, and lung cancer: results from four national, population based studies. BMJ. 2001; 322: 830831.
  • 53
    Jordan VC. Antitumor activity of antiestrogen ICI 46,474 (tamoxifen) in dimethylbenzantracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary carcinoma model. J Steroid Biochem. 1974; 4: 354.
  • 54
    Lippman M, Bolan G, Huff K. Interactions of antiestrogens with human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. Cancer Treat Rep. 1976; 60: 14211429.
  • 55
    Furr BJ, Jordan VC. The pharmacology and clinical uses of tamoxifen. Pharmacol Ther. 1984; 25: 127205.
  • 56
    Love RR, Mazess RB, Barden HS, et al. Effect of tamoxifen on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1992; 326: 852856.
  • 57
    Grady D, Herrington D, Bittner V, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA. 2002; 288: 4957.
  • 58
    Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002; 288: 321333.
  • 59
    Kaye JA, Derby LE, del Mar Melero-Montes M, Quinn M, Jick H. The incidence of breast cancer in the General Practice Research Database compared with national cancer registration data. Br J Cancer. 2000; 83: 15561558.
  • 60
    Earle CC, Burstein HJ, Winer EP, Weeks JC. Quality of non-breast cancer health maintenance among elderly breast cancer survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 14471451.
  • 61
    Kattlove H, Winn RJ. Ongoing care of patients after primary treatment for their cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003; 54: 172196.
  • 62
    Barrett-Connor E, Grady D, Sashegyi A, et al. Raloxifene and cardiovascular events in ostoeoporotic postmenopausal women: four-year results from the MORE (Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation) randomized trial. JAMA. 2002; 287: 847857.