• prostate carcinoma;
  • minimally invasive;
  • cryosurgery;
  • high risk



The authors report their experience with cryosurgical ablation of the prostate in men with high-risk features for prostate carcinoma who were unwilling to undergo radical surgery or radiation therapy.


Between January 1998 and April 2002, 65 men underwent primary cryosurgery for prostate carcinoma with high-risk features. All patients had biopsy-proven prostate carcinoma without evidence for metastatic disease on magnetic resonance images, computed tomography scans, or radionuclide images of bones. High-risk parameters were defined as either a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level ≥ 10 ng/mL, or a Gleason sum score ≥ 8, or both. Patients who had undergone prior surgery, radiation therapy, or cryoablation for prostate carcinoma were excluded from the study. Patients were monitored with physical examination and PSA screening every 3 months and with radiologic imaging when indicated.


The median patient age was 72 years (range, 41–86 years), and t he median follow-up was 35 months (range, 4–77 months). There were 2 patients (3.1%) with rectal pain and incontinence. Durable PSA biochemical disease-free survival was noted in 83.3% of patients according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) criteria. A 6-year Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed an 81.7% ASTRO survival probability as well as PSA nadir < 4.0 ng/mL and PSA nadir < 1.0 ng/mL projections of 50% and 35%, respectively. One of 8 postcryosurgery biopsies (12.5%) were positive. No patient had progressed at last follow-up, and the overall survival rate was 100%.


Cryoablation was a feasible treatment option in patients with organ-confined prostate carcinoma who had high-risk features. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine the effectiveness of this approach. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society.