• 1
    Jemal A, Murray T, Samuels A, Ghafoor A, Ward E, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003; 53: 526.
  • 2
    Huggins C, Hodges R. Studies on prostate cancer: 1. The effects of castration, of estrogen and androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res. 1941; 1: 293297.
  • 3
    Walsh PC, DeWeese TL, Eisenberger MA. A structured debate: immediate versus deferred androgen suppression in prostate cancer—evidence for deferred treatment. J Urol. 2001; 166: 508516.
  • 4
    Chodak GW. Comparing treatments for localized prostate cancer—persisting uncertainty. JAMA. 1998; 280: 10081010.
  • 5
    Medical Research Council Prostate Working Party Investigators Group. Immediate versus deferred treatment for advanced prostatic cancer: initial results of the Medical Research Council trial. Br J Urol. 1997; 79: 235246.
  • 6
    Chodak GW, Keane T, Klotz L and The Hormone Therapy Study Group. Critical evaluation of hormonal therapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Urology. 2002; 60: 201208.
  • 7
    Middleton RG, Thompson IM, Austenfeld MS, et al. Prostate cancer clinical guidelines panel summary report on the management of clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 1995; 154: 21442148.
  • 8
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology. Prostate cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network version 1. 2004. Available from URL: [accessed February 22, 2005].
  • 9
    Shipley WU, Thames HD, Sandler HM, et al. Radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: a multi-institutional pooled analysis. JAMA. 1999; 281: 15981604.
  • 10
    Partin AW, Pound CR, Clemens JQ, Epstein JI, Walsh PC. Serum PSA after anatomic radical prostatectomy. The Johns Hopkins experience after 10 years. Urol Clin North Am. 1993; 20: 713725.
  • 11
    Part B Physician/Supplier Nat'l Data, CY 2001 Top 200 Level II Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS/Alpha-Numeric) Codes. Available from URL: [accessed February 22, 2005].
  • 12
    Potosky AL, Knopf K, Clegg LX, et al. Quality-of-life outcomes after primary androgen deprivation therapy: results from the prostate cancer outcomes study. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 37503757.
  • 13
    Fowler FJ, Collins MM, Corkery EW, Elliott DB, Barry MJ. The impact of androgen deprivation on quality of life after radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2002; 95: 287295.
  • 14
    Higano CS. Side effects of androgen deprivation therapy: monitoring and minimizing toxicity. Urology. 2003; 61(2 Suppl. 1 ): 3238.
  • 15
    Meng MV, Grossfeld GD, Sadetsky N, Mehta SS, Lubeck DP, Carroll PR. Contemporary patterns of androgen deprivation therapy use for newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Urology. 2002; 60(Suppl. 3A): 712.
  • 16
    Cooperberg MR, Grossfeld GD, Lubeck DP, Carroll PR. National practice patterns and time trends in androgen ablation for localized prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 981989.
  • 17
    Lubeck DP, Litwin MS, Henning JM, et al. The CaPSURE database: a methodology for clinical practice and research in prostate cancer. Urology. 1996; 48: 773777.
  • 18
    Warren JL, Klabunde CN, Schrag D, Bach PB, Riley GF. Overview of the SEER-Medicare data: content, research applications, and generalizability to the United States elderly population. Med Care. 2002; 40(Suppl. IV): 318.
  • 19
    Potosky AL, Riley GF, Lubitz JD, Mentnech RM, Kessler LG. Potential for cancer related health services research using a linked Medicare-tumor registry database. Med Care. 1993; 31: 732748.
  • 20
    American Medical Association. Physicians' current procedural terminology-CPT 2002. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2001.
  • 21
    International classification of diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification. 6th ed. Los Angeles: Practice Management Information Corporation, 2002.
  • 22
    Cooper GS, Yuan Z, Strange KC, et al. Agreement of Medicare claims and tumor registry data for assessment of cancer-related treatment. Med Care. 2000; 38: 411421.
  • 23
    Virnig BA, Warren JL, Cooper GS, et al. Studying radiation therapy using SEER-Medicare-linked data. Med Care. 2002; 40(Suppl. IV): 4954.
  • 24
    BeahrsOH, HensonDE, HutterRVP, MyersMH, editors. Manual for staging of cancer. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1988.
  • 25
    Fleming ID, Cooper JS, Henson DE, et al., editors. AJCC cancer staging manual. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.
  • 26
    Greene FL, Page DL, Fleming ID, et al., editors. AJCC cancer staging manual. 6th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002.
  • 27
    Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987; 40: 373383.
  • 28
    Klabunde CN, Potosky AL, Legler JM, Warren JL. Development of a comorbidity index using physician claims data. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000; 53: 12581267.
  • 29
    Crawford ED, Eisenberger MA, McLeod DG, et al. A controlled trial of leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1989; 321: 419424.
  • 30
    Granfors T, Modig H, Damber J-E, Tomic R. Combined orchiectomy and external radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for nonmetastatic prostate cancer with or without pelvic lymph node involvement: a prospective randomized study. J Urol. 1998; 159: 20302034.
  • 31
    Pilepich MV, Caplan R, Byhardt RW, et al. Phase III trial of androgen suppression using goserelin in unfavorable-prognosis carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy: report of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 85-31. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 10131021.
  • 32
    Bolla M, Gonzalez D, Warde P, et al. Improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. N Engl J Med. 1997; 337: 295300.
  • 33
    Aus G, Abrahamsson P-A, Ahlgren G, et al. Three-month neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radical prostatectomy: a 7 year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. BJU Int. 2002; 90: 561566.
  • 34
    Soloway MS, Pareek K, Sharifi R, et al. Neoadjuvant androgen ablation before radical prostatectomy in cT2bNxMo prostate cancer: 5-year results. J Urol. 2002; 167: 112116.
  • 35
    Stephenson RA. Prostate cancer trends in the era of prostate-specific antigen: an update of incidence, mortality, and clinical factors from the SEER database. Urol Clin North Am. 2002; 29: 173181.
  • 36
    Welch HG, Albertsen PC, Nease RF, Bubolz TA, Wasson JH. Estimating treatment benefits for the elderly: the effect of competing risks. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 124: 577584.
  • 37
    Fleming C, Wasson JH, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, Wennberg JE. A decision analysis of alternative treatment strategies for clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA. 1993; 269: 26502658.
  • 38
    Milbank AJ, Dreicer R, Klein EA. Hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: primum non nocere. Urology. 2002; 60: 738741.
  • 39
    Smith MR, Finkelstein JS, McGovern FJ, et al. Changes in body composition during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87: 599603.
  • 40
    Smith JC, Bennett S, Evans LM, et al. The effects of induced hypogonadism on arterial stiffness, body composition, and metabolic parameters in males with prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001; 86: 42614267.
  • 41
    Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, Goodwin JS. Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2005: 352: 154164.
  • 42
    Chon JK, Jacobs SC, Naslund MJ. The cost value of medical versus surgical hormonal therapy for metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol. 2000; 164: 735737.
  • 43
    Etzioni R, Berry KM, Legler JM, Shaw P. Prostate-specific antigen testing in black and white men: an analysis of medicare claims from 1991-1998. Urology. 2002; 59: 251255.
  • 44
    Wasson JH, Fowler FJ, Barry MJ. Androgen deprivation therapy for asymptomatic advanced prostate cancer in the prostate specific antigen era: a national survey of urologist beliefs and practices. J Urol. 1998; 159: 19931996.
  • 45
    General Accounting Office report. Medicare: payments for covered outpatient drugs exceed providers' costs. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, 2001:GAO-01-1118.
  • 46
    Collins MM, Barry MJ, Zietman A, et al. United States radiation oncologists' and urologists' opinions about screening and treatment of prostate cancer vary by region. Urology. 2002; 60: 628633.
  • 47
    Harlan LC, Potosky A, Gilliland FD, et al. Factors associated with initial therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 18641871.
  • 48
    Gerrity MS, Devellis RE, Earp J. Physicians' reactions to uncertainty in patient care: a new measure and new insights. Med Care. 1990; 28: 724736.
  • 49
    Gee WF, Holtgrewe HL, Albertsen PC, et al. Practice trends in the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer in the United States. J Urol. 1995; 154: 207208.
  • 50
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) ( program public-use data (1973-1999), National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2002, based on the November 2001 submission.