The role of clofarabine in hematologic and solid malignancies—Development of a next-generation nucleoside analog

Authors

  • Stefan Faderl M.D.,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
    • Department of Leukemia, Unit 428, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Houston, TX 77230-1402
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    • Fax: (713) 794-4297

  • Varsha Gandhi Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
    2. Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
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  • Michael J. Keating M.B., B.S.,

    1. Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
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  • Sima Jeha M.D.,

    1. Department of Hematology/Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee
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  • William Plunkett Ph.D.,

    1. Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
    2. Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
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  • Hagop M. Kantarjian M.D.

    1. Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas
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Abstract

Clofarabine is a new-generation nucleoside analog that has been synthesized to combine the most favorable pharmacokinetic properties of its congeners fludarabine and cladribine. In addition to inhibition of DNA polymerases and DNA synthesis, clofarabine acts as a strong inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase (RnR), an enzyme involved in regulating intracellular deoxynucleotide pools, and has a high affinity to the enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (dCyd), the rate-limiting step in nucleoside phosphorylation.A review of the English literature was performed that included original articles and related reviews from the MEDLINE (PubMed) data base and from abstracts based on the publication of meeting materials.Although it was synthesized early in the 1980s, the development of clofarabine was stalled until 1993, when, through efforts at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, animal toxicology studies were conducted, and the first Phase I study was initiated in patients with hematologic and solid malignancies. Since then, clofarabine has demonstrated single-agent antitumor activity in pediatric and adult acute leukemias. By way of its unique metabolic properties, clofarabine also has lent itself to biochemical modulation strategies with other nucleoside analogs, such as cytarabine. Combinations of clofarabine with cytarabine have been studied in acute leukemia and currently are being evaluated in untreated elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Novel schedules are being explored in lymphoproliferative disorders and solid tumors.Clofarabine is a new nucleoside analog with considerable activity and an acceptable safety profile in acute leukemias. Cancer 2005. © 2005 American Cancer Society.

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