• 1
    Byrd J, Bresalier RS. Mucins and mucin binding proteins in colorectal cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2004; 23: 7799.
  • 2
    Tytgat KM, Buller HA, Opdam FJ, Kim YS, Einerhand AW, Dekker J. Biosynthesis of human colonic mucin: MUC2 is the prominent secretory mucin. Gastroenterology. 1994; 107: 13521363.
  • 3
    Allen A, Hutton DA, Pearson JP. The MUC2 gene product: a human intestinal mucin. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1998; 30: 797801.
  • 4
    Blank M, Klussmann E, Kruger-Krasagakes S, et al. Expression of MUC2-mucin in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas of different histological types. Int J Cancer. 1994; 59: 301306.
  • 5
    Bresalier RS, Niv Y, Byrd JC, et al. Mucin production by human colonic carcinoma cells correlates with their metastatic potential in animal models of colon cancer metastasis. J Clin Invest. 1991; 87: 10371045.
  • 6
    Sternberg LR, Byrd JC, Yunker CK, Dudas S, Hoon VK, Bresalier RS. Liver colonization by human colon cancer cells is reduced by antisense inhibition of MUC2 mucin synthesis. Gastroenterology. 1999; 116: 363371.
  • 7
    Reddy BS, Watanabe K, Weisburger JH, Wynder EL. Promoting effect of bile acids in colon carcinogenesis in germ-free and conventional F344 rats. Cancer Res. 1977; 37: 32383242.
  • 8
    Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Rao AV, Thompson LU. Cancer risk: possible protective role of high carbohydrate, high fiber diets. Am J Gastroenterol. 1986; 81: 931935.
  • 9
    Reddy BS. Dietary fat and colon cancer: animal model studies. Lipids. 1992; 27: 807813.
  • 10
    Powell AA, LaRue JM, Batta AK, Martinez JD. Bile acid hydrophobicity is correlated with induction of apoptosis and/or growth arrest in HCT116 cells. Biochem J. 2001; 356: 481486.
  • 11
    Mahmoud NN, Dannenberg AJ, Bilinski RT, et al. Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Carcinogenesis. 1999; 20: 299303.
  • 12
    Debruyne PR, Bruyneel EA, Karaguni IM, et al. Bile acids stimulate invasion and haptotaxis in human colorectal cancer cells through activation of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways. Oncogene. 2002; 21: 67406750.
  • 13
    Halvorsen B, Staff AC, Ligaarden S, Prydz K, Kolset SO. Lithocholic acid and sulphated lithocholic acid differs in the ability to promote matrix metalloproteinase secretion in the human colon cancer cell line CaCo-2. Biochem J. 2000; 349: 189193.
  • 14
    Shekels LL, Lyftogt CT, Ho SB. Bile acid-induced alterations of mucin production in differentiated human colon cancer cell lines. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1996; 28: 193201.
  • 15
    Klinkspoor JH, Mok KS, Van Klinken BJ, Tytgat GN, Lee SP, Groen AK. Mucin secretion by the human colon cell line LS174T is regulated by bile salts. Glycobiology. 1999; 9: 1319.
  • 16
    Gum JR, Hicks JW, Kim YS. Identification and characterization of the MUC2 (human intestinal mucin) gene 5′-flanking region: promoter activity in cultured cells. Biochem J. 1997; 325: 259267.
  • 17
    Gray T, Nettesheim P, Basbaum C, Koo J. Regulation of mucin gene expression in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells by thyroid hormone. Biochem J. 2001; 353: 727734.
  • 18
    Brown PH, Chen TK, Birrer MJ. Mechanism of action of a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun. Oncogene. 1994; 9: 791799.
  • 19
    Lee HY, Dawson MI, Claret FX, et al. Evidence of a retinoid signaling alteration involving the activator protein 1 complex in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells and non-small cell lung cancer cells. Cell Growth Differ. 1997; 8: 283291.
  • 20
    Mahmoud NN, Dannenberg AJ, Bilinski RT, et al. Administration of an unconjugated bile acid increases duodenal tumors in a murine model of familial adenomatous polyposis. Carcinogenesis. 1999; 20: 299303.
  • 21
    Wali RK, Khare S, Tretiakova M, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid and F(6)-D(3) inhibit aberrant crypt proliferation in the rat azoxymethane model of colon cancer: roles of cyclin D1 and E-cadherin. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002; 11: 16531662.
  • 22
    Wali RK, Stoiber D, Nguyen L, et al. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits the initiation and postinitiation phases of azoxymethane-induced colonic tumor development. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002; 11: 13161321.
  • 23
    Lee HW, Ahn DH, Crawley SC, et al. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate up-regulates the transcription of MUC2 intestinal mucin via Ras, ERK, and NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 3262432631.
  • 24
    Qiao D, Chen W, Stratagoules ED, Martinez JD. Bile acid-induced activation of activator protein-1 requires both extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 1509015098.
  • 25
    Debruyne PR, Bruyneel EA, Li X, Zimber A, Gespach C, Mareel MM. The role of bile acids in carcinogenesis. Mutat Res. 2001; 480: 359369.
  • 26
    Hirano F, Tanada H, Makino Y, et al. Induction of the transcription factor AP-1 in cultured human colon adenocarcinoma cells following exposure to bile acids. Carcinogenesis. 1996; 17: 427433.
  • 27
    Kelloff GJ, Crowell JA, Steele VE, et al. Progress in cancer chemoprevention: development of diet-derived chemopreventive agents. J Nutr. 2000; 130: 467471S.
  • 28
    Rabinovich GA, Alonso CR, Sotomayor CE, Durand S, Bocco JL, Riera CM. Molecular mechanisms implicated in galectin-1-induced apoptosis: activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and downregulation of Bcl-2. Cell Death Differ. 2000; 7: 747753.
  • 29
    Pongracz J, Clark P, Neoptolemos JP, Lord JM. Expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes in colorectal cancer tissue and their differential activation by different bile acids. Int J Cancer. 1995; 61: 3539.
  • 30
    Huang XP, Fan XT, Desjeux JF, Castagna M. Bile acids, non-phorbol-ester-type tumor promoters, stimulate the phosphorylation of protein kinase C substrates in human platelets and colon cell line HT29. Int J Cancer. 1992; 52: 444450.
  • 31
    Velcich A, Augenlicht LH. Regulated expression of an intestinal mucin gene in HT29 colonic carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1993; 268: 1395613961.
  • 32
    Hidaka H, Inagaki M, Kawamoto S, Sasaki Y. Isoquinolinesulfonamides, novel and potent inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C. Biochemistry. 1984; 23: 50365041.
  • 33
    Mechta-Grigoriou F, Gerald D, Yaniv M. The mammalian Jun proteins: redundancy and specificity. Oncogene. 2001; 20: 23782389.
  • 34
    Shaulian E, Karin M. AP-1 as a regulator of cell life and death. Nat Cell Biol. 2002; 4: E131136.
  • 35
    Shaulian E, Karin M. AP-1 in cell proliferation and survival. Oncogene. 2001; 20: 23902400.
  • 36
    Li JD, Feng W, Gallup M, et al. Activation of NF-kappa-B via a Src-dependent Ras-MAPK-pp90rsk pathway is required for Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced mucin overproduction in epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998; 95: 57185723.
  • 37
    Jono H, Shuto T, Xu H, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta-Smad signaling pathway cooperates with NF-kappa B to mediate nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced MUC2 mucin transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 4554745557.
  • 38
    Aslam F, Palumbo L, Augenlicht LH, Velcich A. The Sp family of transcription factors in the regulation of the human and mouse MUC2 gene promoters. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 570576.
  • 39
    Perrais M, Pigny P, Copin MC, Aubert JP, Van Seuningen I. Induction of MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins by factors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family is mediated by EGF receptor/Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade and Sp1. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 3225832267.
  • 40
    Yamamoto H, Bai YQ, Yuasa Y. Homeodomain protein CDX2 regulates goblet-specific MUC2 gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003; 300: 813818.
  • 41
    Ren CY, Akiyama Y, Miyake S, Yuasa Y. Transcription factor GATA-5 selectively up-regulates mucin gene expression. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004; 130: 245262.
  • 42
    Matoba N, Une M, Hoshita T. Identification of unconjugated bile acids in human bile. J Lipid Res. 1986; 27: 11541162.
  • 43
    McJunkin B, Fromm H, Sarva RP, Amin P. Factors in the mechanism of diarrhea in bile acid malabsorption: fecal pH—a key determinant. Gastroenterology. 1981; 80: 14541464.