• 1
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Effect of adjuvant tamoxifen and of cytotoxic therapy on mortality in early breast cancer. An overview of 61 randomized trials among 28,896 women. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319: 16811692.
  • 2
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomized trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. Lancet. 1988; 351: 14511467.
  • 3
    Buzdar AU, Jonat W, Howell A, et al. Anastrozole versus megesterol acetate in the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast carcinoma: results of a survival update based on a combined analysis of data from two mature Phase III trials. Cancer. 1988; 83: 11421152.
  • 4
    Dombernowsky P, Smith I, Falkson G, et al. Letrozole, a new oral aromatase inhibitor for advanced breast cancer: double-blind randomized trial showing a dose effect and improved efficacy and tolerability compared with megestrol acetate. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 453461.
  • 5
    Kaufmann M, Bajetta E, Dirix LY, et al. Exemestane is superior to megestrol acetate after tamoxifen failure in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: results of a Phase III randomized double-blind trial. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 13991411.
  • 6
    Baum M, Budzar AU, Cuzick J, et al. ATAC Trialists' Group. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomized trial. Lancet. 2002; 359: 21312139.
  • 7
    Chang J, Ormerod M, Powles TJ, Allred DC, Ashley SE, Dowsett M. Apoptosis and proliferation as predictors of chemotherapy response in patients with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2000; 89: 21452152.
  • 8
    Sjostrom J, Blomqvist C, von Boguslawski K, et al. The predictive value of bcl-2, bax, bcl-xL, bag-1, fas, and fasL for chemotherapy response in advanced breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002; 8: 811816.
  • 9
    Debatin KM, Poncet D, Kroemer G. Chemotherapy: targeting the mitochondrial cell death pathway. Oncogene. 2002; 21: 87868803.
  • 10
    Kim R, Tanabe K, Uchida Y, Emi M, Inoue H, Toge T. Current status of the molecular mechanisms of anticancer drug-induced apoptosis—the contribution of molecular-level analysis to cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2002; 50: 343352.
  • 11
    Keen JC, Dixon JM, Miller EP, et al. The expression of Ki-S1 and BCL-2 and the response to primary tamoxifen therapy in elderly patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1997; 44: 123133.
  • 12
    Real PJ, Sierra A, De Juan A, Segovia JC, Lopez-Vega JM, Fernandez-Luna JL. Resistance to chemotherapy via Stat3-dependent overexpression of Bcl-2 in metastatic breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2002; 21: 76117618.
  • 13
    Dong L, Wang W, Wang F, et al. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of bcl-2 gene expression by 17 beta-estradiol in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 3209932107.
  • 14
    de Bono JS, Rowinsky EK. The ErbB receptor family: a therapeutic target for cancer. Trends Mol Med. 2002; 8: 1926.
  • 15
    Penuel E, Schaefer G, Akita RW, Sliwkowski MX. Structural requirements for ErbB2 transactivation. Semin Oncol. 2001; 28: 3642.
  • 16
    Li Z, Xia W, Fang B, Yan DH. Targeting HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells by an antisense iron responsive element-directed gene expression. Cancer Lett. 2001; 174: 151158.
  • 17
    Yu D, Liu B, Tan M, Li J, Wang SS, Hung MC. Overexpression of c-erbB-2/neu in breast cancer cells confers increased resistance to Taxol via mdr-independent mechanisms. Oncogene. 1996; 13: 13591365.
  • 18
    Yu D, Liu B, Jing T, et al. Overexpression of both p185c-erbB2 and p170mdr-1 renders breast cancer cells highly resistant to Taxol. Oncogene. 1998; 16: 20872094.
  • 19
    Zhou BP, Hu MC, Miller SA, et al. HER-2/neu blocks tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis via the Akt/NF-kappa B pathway. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 80278031.
  • 20
    Wang CY, Mayo MW, Korneluk RG, Goeddel DV, Baldwin AS Jr. NF-kappa B antiapoptosis: induction of TRAF1 and TRAF2 and c-IAP1 and c-IAP2 to suppress caspase-8 activation. Science. 1998; 281: 16801683.
  • 21
    Pugazhenthi S, Nesterova A, Sable C, et al. Akt/protein kinase B up-regulates Bcl-2 expression through cAMP-response element-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2000; 275: 1076110766.
  • 22
    Kim R, Ohi Y, Inoue H, Toge T. Activation and the interaction of proapoptotic genes in modulating sensitivity to anticancer drugs in gastric cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 1999; 15: 751756.
  • 23
    Kim R, Minami K, Nishimoto N, Toge T. Enhancement of antitumor effect by intratumoral administration of bax gene in combination with anticancer drugs in gastric cancer. Int J Oncol. 2001; 18: 363367.
  • 24
    Kim R, Tanabe K, Uchida Y, Emi M, Toge T. Effect of Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotides on drug-sensitivity in association with apoptosis in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma. Int J Mol Med. 2003; 11: 799804.
  • 25
    Webb A, Cunningham D, Cotter F, et al. bcl-2 anti-sense therapy in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet. 1997; 349: 11371141.
  • 26
    Tanabe K, Kim R, Inoue H, Emi M, Uchida Y, Toge T. Effect of antisense Bcl-2 and HER-2 oligonucleotides on enhancement of drug-sensitivity in breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2003; 22: 875881.
  • 27
    Kim R, Ohi Inoue H, Toge T. Enhancement of chemotherapeutic agent induced-apoptosis associated with activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 and caspase-3 (CPP32) in bax-transfected gastric cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2000; 20: 439444.
  • 28
    Love-Schimenti CD, Gibson DF, Ratnam AV, Bikle DD. Antiestrogen potentiation of antiproliferative effects of vitamin D3 analogues in breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 1996; 56: 27892794.
  • 29
    Grunt TW, Saceda M, Martin MB, et al. Bidirectional interactions between the estrogen receptor and the cerbB-2 signaling pathways: heregulin inhibits estrogenic effects in breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 1995; 63: 560567.
  • 30
    Kury FD, Schneeberger C, Sliutz G, et al. Determination of HER-2/neu amplification and expression in tumor tissue and cultured cells using a simple, phenol free method for nucleic acid isolation. Oncogene. 1990; 5: 14031408.
  • 31
    Staal SP. Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues Akt1 and Akt2: amplification of Akt1 in a primary human gastric adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1987; 84: 50345037.
  • 32
    Nakatani K, Thompson DA, Barthel A, et al. Up-regulation of Akt3 in estrogen receptor-deficient breast cancers and androgen-independent prostate cancer lines. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 2152821532.
  • 33
    Adams JM, Cory S. The Bcl-2 protein family: arbiters of cell survival. Science. 1998; 281: 13221326.
  • 34
    Datta SR, Dudek H, Tao X, et al. Akt phosphorylation of Bad couples survival signals to the cell-intrinsic death machinery. Cell. 1997; 91: 231241.
  • 35
    Cardone MH, Roy N, Stennicke HR, et al. Regulation of cell death protease caspase-9 by phosphorylation. Science. 1998; 282: 13181321.
  • 36
    Meng F, Liu L, Chin PC, D'Mello SR. Akt is a downstream target of NF-kappa B. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 2967429680.
  • 37
    Nimmanapalli R, Bhalla K. Mechanisms of resistance to imatinib mesylate in Bcr-Abl-positive leukemias. Curr Opin Oncol. 2002; 14: 616620.
  • 38
    Liu Y, Ludes-Meyers J, Zhang Y, et al. Inhibition of AP-1 transcription factor causes blockade of multiple signal transduction pathways and inhibits breast cancer growth. Oncogene. 2002; 21: 76807689.
  • 39
    Kumar R, Mandel M, Lipton A, Harvey H, Thompson CB. Overexpression of HER2 modulates bcl-2, bcl-XL, and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 1996; 2: 12151219.
  • 40
    Nicholson BP. Ongoing and planned trials of hormonal therapy and trastuzumab. Semin Oncol. 2000; 27: 3337.
  • 41
    Campbell RA, Bhat-Nakshatri P, Patel NM, Constantinidou D, Ali S, Nakshatri H. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-mediated activation of estrogen receptor alpha: a new model for anti-estrogen resistance. J Biol Chem. 2001; 276: 98179824.
  • 42
    Perez-Tenorio G, Stal O, Southeast Sweden Breast Cancer Group. Activation of AKT/PKB in breast cancer predicts a worse outcome among endocrine treated patients. Br J Cancer. 2002; 86: 540545.
  • 43
    Slamon DJ, Leyland-Jones B, Shak S, et al. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 783792.
  • 44
    Burstein HJ, Kuter I, Campos SM, et al. Clinical activity of trastuzumab and vinorelbine in women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 27222730.
  • 45
    Kim R, Tanabe K, Uchida Y, Osaki A, Toge T. The role of HER-2 oncoprotein in drug-sensitivity in breast cancer. Oncol Rep. 2002; 9: 39.
  • 46
    Kim YH, Park JW, Lee JY, Surh YJ, Kwon TK. Bcl-2 overexpression prevents daunorubicin-induced apoptosis through inhibition of XIAP and Akt degradation. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003; 66: 17791786.
  • 47
    Fahy BN, Schlieman M, Virudachalam S, Bold RJ. AKT inhibition is associated with chemosensitisation in the pancreatic cancer cell line MIA-PaCa-2. Br J Cancer. 2003; 89: 391397.
  • 48
    Mani S, Rudin CM, Kunkel K, et al. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of protein kinase C-alpha antisense oligonucleotide ISIS 3521 administered in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with advanced cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002; 8: 10421048.
  • 49
    Cripps MC, Figueredo AT, Oza AM, et al. Phase II randomized study of ISIS 3521 and ISIS 5132 in patients with locally advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer: a National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Study. Clin Cancer Res. 2002; 8: 21882192.
  • 50
    Gutierrez-Puente Y, Zapata-Benavides P, Tari AM, Lopez-Berestein G. Bcl-2-related antisense therapy. Semin Oncol. 2002; 29: 7176.
  • 51
    Millward MJ, Bedikian AY, Conry RM, et al. Randomized multinational Phase 3 trial of dacarbazine (DTIC) with or without Bcl-2 antisense (oblimersen sodium) in patients (pts) with advanced malignant melanoma (MM): analysis of long-term survival. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 2004; 711: 7505.
  • 52
    Jones JL, Daley BJ, Enderson BL, Zhou JR, Karlstad MD. Genistein inhibits tamoxifen effects on cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in T47D breast cancer cells. Am Surg. 2002; 68: 575577.