• 1
    Fisher B, Anderson S, Bryant J, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 12331241.
  • 2
    Veronesi U, Cascinelli N, Mariani L, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized study comparing breast conserving surgery with radical mastectomy for early breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 12271232.
  • 3
    Hunt KK, Ames FC, Singletary SE, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN. Locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer. Surg Clin North Am. 1996; 76: 393410.
  • 4
    Newman LA, Buzdar AU, Singletary SE, et al. A prospective trial of preoperative chemotherapy in resectable breast cancer: predictors of breast-conversation therapy feasibility. Ann Surg Oncol. 2001; 9: 228234.
  • 5
    Kuerer HM, Singletary SE, Buzdar AU, et al. Surgical conservation planning after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage II and operable stage III breast carcinoma. Am J Surg. 2001; 182: 601608.
  • 6
    Chen AM, Meric-Bernstam F, Hunt KK, et al. Breast conservation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Experience. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 23032312.
  • 7
    Fisher B, Brown A, Mamounas E, et al. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on local-regional disease in women with operable breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 24832493.
  • 8
    Shen J, Valero V, Buchholz TA, et al. Effective local control and long-term survival in patients with T4 locally advanced breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2004; 11: 854860.
  • 9
    Mirza NQ, Vlastos G, Meric F, et al. Predictors of locoregional recurrence among patients with early stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002; 9: 256265.
  • 10
    Perez CA. Conservation therapy in T1–T2 breast cancer: past, current issues, and future challenges and opportunities. Cancer J. 2003; 9: 442453.
  • 11
    Leong C, Boyages J, Jagasinghe UW, et al. Effect of margins on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after breast conservation therapy for node-negative breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2004; 100: 18231832.
  • 12
    Meric-Bernstam F. Breast conservation in breast cancer: surgical and adjuvant considerations. Curr Opinion Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 16; 3136.
  • 13
    Singletary SE, Allred C, Ashley P, et al. Revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 36283636.
  • 14
    Schnitt SJ, Connolly IL. Processing and evaluation of breast excision specimens. A clinically oriented approach. Am J Clin Pathol. 1992; 981: 25137.
  • 15
    Sahin AA. Surgical margin evaluation in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. In: SingletarySE, RobbGL, HortobagyiGN, editors. Advanced therapy of breast disease. 2nd ed. Ontario: BC Decker Inc, 2004: 341348.
  • 16
    Recht A, Connolly JL, Schnitt SJ, et al. The effect of young age on tumor recurrence in the treated breast after conservative surgery and radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988; 14: 310.
  • 17
    Veronesi U, Luini A, Galimberti V, et al. Conservation approaches for the management of stage I/II carcinoma of the breast: Milan Cancer Institute trials. World J Surg. 1994; 18: 7075.
  • 18
    Fisher ER, Anderson S, Redmond C, et al. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and survival following lumpectomy and irradiation: pathological findings from NSABP protocol B-06. Semin Surg Oncol. 1992; 8: 161166.
  • 19
    Voogd AC, Nielsen M, Peterse JL, et al. Differences in risk factors for local and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy or mastectomy for stage I and II breast cancer: pooled results of two large European randomized trials. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 16881697.
  • 20
    Fowble BL, Schultz DJ, Overmoyer B, et al. The influence of young age on outcome in early stage breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1994; 30: 2333.
  • 21
    Kim SH, Simkovich-Heerdt A, Tran KN, et al. Women 35 years of age or younger have higher locoregional relapse rates after undergoing breast conservation therapy. J Am Coll Surg. 1998; 187: 18.
  • 22
    Freedman GM, Hanlon AL, Fowble BL, et al. Recursive partitioning identifies patients at high and low risk for ipsilateral tumor recurrence after breast-conserving surgery and radiation. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 40154021.
  • 23
    Elkhuizen PH, van Slooten HJ, Clahsen PC, et al. High local recurrence risk after breast conserving therapy in node negative premenopausal breast cancer patients is greatly reduced by one course of perioperative chemotherapy: a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Study. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 10751083.
  • 24
    Bonnen MD, Outlaw ED, McNeese MD, et al. Factors associated with breast recurrence in young females treated with breast conservation therapy: how young is young. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003; 57(2 Suppl ): S356357.
  • 25
    Solin LJ, Fowble B, Schultz DJ, et al. Age as a prognostic factor for patients treated with definitive irradiation for early stage breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1989; 16: 373381.
  • 26
    Clarke DH, Le MG, Sarrazin D, et al. Analysis of local-regional relapses in patients with early breast cancers treated by excision and radiotherapy: experience of the Institut Gustave-Roussy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1985; 11: 137145.
  • 27
    van Dongen JA, Bartelink H, Fentiman IS, et al. Factors influencing local relapse and survival and results of salvage treatment after breast-conserving therapy in operable breast cancer: EORCT trial 10801, breast conversation compared with mastectomy in TNM stage I and II breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1992; 28A: 801805.
  • 28
    Stotter AT, McNeese MD, Ames FC, et al. Predicting the rate and the extent of locoregional failure after breast conservation therapy for early breast cancer. Cancer. 1989; 64: 22172225.
  • 29
    Mate TP, Carter D, Fisher DB, et al. A clinical and histopathologic analysis of the results of conservation surgery and radiation therapy in stage I and II breast carcinoma. Cancer. 1986; 58: 19952002.
  • 30
    Nobler MP, Venet L. Prognostic factors in patients undergoing curative irradiation for breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1985; 11: 13231331.
  • 31
    Kroman N, Jensen MB, Wohfahrt J, et al. Factors influencing the effect of age on prognosis in breast cancer: population based study. BMJ. 2000; 320: 474478.
  • 32
    Pass H, Vicini FA, Kestin LL, et al. Changes in management techniques and patterns of disease recurrence over time in patients with breast carcinoma treated with breast-conserving therapy at a single institution. Cancer. 2004; 101: 713720.
  • 33
    Fisher B, Reymond C, Poisson R, et al. Eight-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing total mastectomy and lumpectomy with or without irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320; 822828.
  • 34
    Fisher B, Redmond C, Dimitrov NV, et al. A randomized clinical trial evaluating sequential methotrexate and fluorouracil in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-negative tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320: 473478.
  • 35
    Buchholz TA, Tucker SL, Erwin J, et al. Impact of systemic treatment on local control for patients with lymph node-negative breast cancer treated with breast-conservation therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 22402246.
  • 36
    Freedman G, Fowble B, Hanlon A, et al. Patients with early stage invasive cancer with close or positive margins treated with conservative surgery and radiation have an increased risk of breast recurrence that is delayed by adjuvant systemic therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999; 44: 10051015.
  • 37
    Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, Wolmark N. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen for lymph node-negative breast cancer: Updated findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 684690.
  • 38
    Fisher B, Bryant J, Dignam JJ, et al. Tamoxifen, radiation therapy, or both for prevention of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence after lumpectomy in women with invasive breast cancers of one centimeter or less. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 41414149.
  • 39
    The ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen alone or in Combination) Trialists' Group. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomised trial. Lancet. 2002; 359: 21312139.
  • 40
    Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, et al. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 110.
  • 41
    Coombes RC, Hall E, Gibson LJ, et al. A randomized trial of exemestane after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 10811092.
  • 42
    Smitt MC, Nowels KW, Zdeblick MJ, et al. The importance of the lumpectomy surgical margin status in long term results of breast conservation. Cancer. 1995; 76: 259267.
  • 43
    Schmitt SJ, Abner A, Gelman R, et al. The relationship between microscopic margins of resection and the risk of local recurrence in patients with breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Cancer. 1994; 74: 17461751.
  • 44
    Meric F, Mirza NQ, Vlastos G, et al. Positive surgical margins and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence predict disease-specific survival after breast-conserving therapy. Cancer. 2003; 97: 926933.
  • 45
    Clark R, Wilkinson R, Miceli P, et al. Breast cancer experiences with conservation therapy. Am J Clin Oncol. 1987; 10: 461468.
  • 46
    Ryoo M, Kagan A, Wollin M, et al. Prognosis factors for recurrence and cosmesis in 393 patients after radiation therapy for early mammary carcinoma. Radiology. 1989; 172: 555559.
  • 47
    Pezner R, Lipsett J, Deasi K, et al. To boost or not to boost: decreasing radiation therapy in conservative breast cancer treatment when “inked” tumor resection margins are pathologically free of cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988; 14: 873877.
  • 48
    Romestaing P, Lehingue Y, Carrie C, :et al. Role of a 10-Gy boost in the conservative treatment of early breast cancer: results of a randomized clinical trial in Lyon, France. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 963968.