Wingo PA, Cardinez CJ, Landis SH, et al. Long-term trends in cancer mortality in the United States, 1930–1998. Cancer. (2003) 97(12 Suppl):3133–275.


Abstract

The original article to which this Erratum refers was published in Cancer (2003) 97(12 Suppl):3133–275.

In the article cited above, minor errors in death counts have been found in 12 tables. These errors were limited to deaths that were abstracted from bound Vital Statistics volumes, and occurred in 1941, 1942, and 1944 for leukemia; in 1936 for colorectal cancer; in 1955 for lung cancer; and in 1955 and 1958 for prostate cancer.

The authors found that the errors were related to spreadsheet summation calculations. In these instances, the sum function was not activated during calculations for all races combined. Therefore, incorrect death counts impacted rate and estimated annual percent change (EAPC) calculations.

The errors in colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer counts did not affect the statistics for all cancer sites combined, since the site-specific counts were abstracted and summed separately from the abstractions for all cancer sites combined. However, the errors in leukemia also affected the data for all cancer sites combined. Under ICD-5, which was in effect from 1939–1948, selected blood diseases were not counted with cancer deaths for all cancer sites combined and had to be added to the abstracted data for all cancer sites combined.

The errors did not alter the findings or conclusions presented in the published article. The differences between published and corrected counts were not larger than 10, and the rates did not vary by more than 0.5 per 100,000 population. The estimated annual percent changes for the age-adjusted rates did not change, and the estimated annual percent changes for the age-specific rates did not vary by more than 0.5 with one exception — prostate cancer among men aged 0–19 years.

The affected tables appear on pages 3152, 3156, 3159, 3172, 3184, 3188, 3191, 3208, 3212, 3240, 3242, and 3246 [corrected tables available online].

The authors regret these errors.3, 4, 5, 10, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 33, 34, 35

Table 3. Deaths and Death Rates for All Cancer Sites, by Gender and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
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Table 4. Male Deaths and Death Ratesa for All Cancer Sites, by Age at and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
original image
Table 5. Average Annual Percent Change in Death Rates for All Cancer Sites, by Gender and Age at Death, 1930-1998, United States
Age1930-391940-491950-591960-691970-791980-891990-98
  • *

    Average annual percent change is significantly different from zero (p < 0.05).

  • a

    Rates cannot be calculated for 75-79, 80-84, and 85+ because population data are only available for 75+ from 1930 to 1939.

  • Source: Vital Statistics of the United States [ref. 10–14]; see also Cautions in the Interpretations of Long-Term Trends Data.

Males       
0-43.3*1.3-1.3*-4.3*-4.8*-4.1*-3.3*
5-93.8*2.1*1.1-0.9*-4.2*-4.2*-3.2*
10-142.53.2*1.4*-1.1-2.4*-2.7*-2.6*
15-191.12.5*-0.1-0.2-3.1*-3.0*-2.3*
20-242.4*2.1*0.4-0.8-3.7*-2.9*-0.2
25-291.8*1.7*-0.4-1.0-2.3*-1.8*-1.1
30-341.21.4*0.9*-0.6-2.7*-0.5-1.7*
35-391.3*1.6*0.40.7*-2.2*-0.9*-2.2*
40-441.6*0.70.7*1.2*-1.4*-1.6*-1.5*
45-491.4*0.8*0.5*0.9*-0.1-1.4*-2.0*
50-541.7*1.5*1.0*0.6*0.9*-0.9*-2.3*
55-591.1*1.7*0.7*1.1*-0.3*-0.2-2.3*
60-640.8*1.6*1.3*0.9*0.6*0.5*-1.9*
65-691.0*0.8*1.6*1.1*0.4*0.0-1.3*
70-740.6*0.6*0.8*1.5*1.3*0.4*-0.7*
75-79a 1.0*0.31.5*0.8*0.4*-1.3*
80-84a 0.30.8*0.6*1.7*0.9*-1.0*
85+a 2.5*0.8*0.9*2.0*1.0*-0.7*
Age1930-391940-491950-591960-691970-791980-891990-98
Females       
0-43.8*1.3-1.2*-3.3*-4.9*-2.1*-3.1*
5-93.7*3.4*0.2-1.2-4.6*-3.2*-2.8*
10-143.3*1.90.9-1.5*-3.6*-2.8*-1.3
15-191.9*1.5-1.1-1.5*-3.6*-2.5*-2.5*
20-241.31.3-1.2*0.0-3.1*-1.3-0.7
25-291.7*-0.6-1.3*-2.1*-3.0*-1.6*-0.8
30-340.1-1.0*-0.6-1.3*-2.1*-1.1*-1.1*
35-390.5-0.5-1.1*-1.0*-2.6*-0.8*-1.5*
40-44-0.1-1.0*-1.5*-0.4*-1.7*-1.2*-1.9*
45-49-0.5-0.6*-0.8*-0.3*-1.3*-1.0*-2.5*
50-54-0.1-0.5*-0.8*0.0-0.1-0.5*-2.1*
55-59-0.2-0.1-0.9*0.5*-0.20.0-1.7*
60-64-0.4*-0.5*-0.9*-0.4*1.2*0.7*-1.0*
65-690.1-0.9*-0.2-0.10.51.0*-0.7*
70-74-0.4-0.6*-1.4*-0.30.7*1.4*0.3
75-79a 0.1-1.4*-0.3-0.21.2*0.2
80-84a -0.2-0.4*-1.0*0.6*0.7*0.7*
85+a 1.3*-0.1-0.6*0.30.8*0.5*
Table 10. Deaths and Death Rates for Cancer of the Colon, Rectum, Anal Canal, and Small Intestine, by Gender and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
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Table 14. Deaths and Death Rates for Leukemia, by Gender and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
original image
Table 15. Male Deaths and Death Ratesa for Leukemia, by Age at and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
original image
Table 16. Average Annual Percent Change in Death Rates for Leukemia, by Gender and Age at Death, 1930-1998, United States
Age1930-391940-491950-591960-691970-791980-891990-98
  • *

    Average annual percent change is significantly different from zero (p < 0.05).

  • a

    Rates cannot be calculated for 75-79, 80-84, and 85+ because population data are only available for 75+ from 1930 to 1939.

  • Source: Vital Statistics of the United States [ref. 10–14]; see also Cautions in the Interpretations of Long-Term Trends Data.

Males       
0-45.1*1.0-1.7*-4.9*-7.6*-4.4*-4.5*
5-93.1*2.5*2.3*-0.8-5.2*-5.7*-5.1*
10-142.71.8*1.4-1.1-1.4-3.0*-3.6*
15-191.73.4*-0.30.0-1.8-3.1*-4.6*
20-241.12.11.3-1.60.3-0.90.3
25-295.1*2.8*-0.3-2.6*-1.3-2.8*-1.5
30-345.5*3.3*-0.30.2-1.2-0.9-2.5
35-392.21.11.5-0.1-1.1-2.6*-1.5
40-443.9*1.90.2-0.3-1.4-0.8-1.1
45-495.3*1.9*0.0-0.9-0.1-1.7*-1.7*
50-545.5*2.0*0.4-1.00.3-1.4*-2.5*
55-592.5*3.3*0.10.2-1.2*-0.6-1.9*
60-646.0*5.1*1.6*-0.60.1-0.3-0.6
65-695.3*4.3*2.9*0.0-0.7-0.2-0.1
70-746.9*6.3*2.6*1.1*0.1-0.10.5
75-79a 8.5*4.1*1.8*-0.60.10.1
80-84a 5.6*6.2*1.7*1.3*-0.40.2
85+a 13.0*7.2*4.3*2.2*-0.8-0.5
Age1930-391940-491950-591960-691970-791980-891990-98
Females       
0-47.4*1.0-1.6*-3.9*-7.7*-1.9-2.8
5-94.9*4.3*1.7-0.4-5.9*-5.4*-5.4*
10-146.1*3.6*0.4-2.6*-2.7*-3.0*0.3
15-194.6*1.50.7-2.0-4.0*-3.9*-4.0*
20-245.32.20.40.3-0.5-2.3-0.4
25-292.91.1-2.0-1.4-2.7*-2.7*-1.9
30-344.12.0*-0.1-1.7-0.9-3.3*-2.1
35-393.2*1.7*0.11.1-1.5-3.1*-4.4*
40-445.4*0.4-2.1*0.20.6-2.1*-1.6
45-492.8*0.9-0.4-1.6*-0.6-1.7*-3.1*
50-545.0*2.1*0.1-0.60.2-0.6-2.4*
55-592.74.3*-0.5-1.0-1.4*0.1-1.7*
60-643.6*2.40.4-1.9*0.2-0.1-0.2
65-695.8*5.0*2.2*-0.3-1.1-0.1-0.7
70-745.6*5.0*3.3*0.6-0.70.20.4
75-79a 6.3*2.6*1.2*-0.5-0.9*0.1
80-84a 7.5*6.6*1.9*0.0-0.20.1
85+a 11.3*6.2*5.0*0.90.7*-0.5
Table 22. Deaths and Death Rates for Cancer of the Lung, Bronchus, Trachea, and Pleura, by Gender and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
original image
Table 23. Male Deaths and Death Ratesa for Cancer of the Lung, Bronchus, Trachea, and Pleura, by Age at and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
original image
Table 33. Male Deaths and Death Rates for Cancer of the Prostate, by Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
original image
Table 34. Male Deaths and Death Ratesa for Cancer of the Prostate, by Age at and Year of Death, 1930-1998, United States
original image
Table 35. Average Annual Percent Change in Male Death Rates for Cancer of the Prostate, by Age at Death, 1930-1998, United States
 1930-391940-491950-591960-691970-791980-891990-98
  • *

    Average annual percent change is significantly different from zero (p < 0.05).

  • a

    Rates cannot be calculated for 75-79, 80-84, and 85+ because population data are only available for 75+ from 1930 to 1939.

  • na = not applicable; estimated annual percent change was not calculated because one or more age-specific rates was equal to zero.

  • Source: Vital Statistics of the United States [ref. 10–14]; see also Cautions in the Interpretations of Long-Term Trends Data.

Age       
0-19na-2.0-4.7-2.0-6.6-2.6na
20-240.0na1.4nananana
25-294.1na-12.2nananana
30-34-0.30.5nananana1.9
35-39-1.6-5.9-5.5-8.1-7.3-5.11.6
40-441.8-3.4-3.8-3.8-7.3-2.35.1*
45-490.1-2.5*-3.11.2-0.1-2.02.2
50-542.9*0.2-2.5*-1.2-0.40.1-2.1*
55-591.2-0.7-1.0-0.2-0.31.1*-2.9*
60-641.9*-1.0-0.3-0.10.31.1*-4.1*
65-692.8*-1.20.50.20.20.9*-4.0*
70-743.9*-0.4-0.10.10.7*1.2*-3.6*
75-79a 1.4*-0.60.20.40.7*-3.1*
80-84a 1.4*0.8-0.31.0*1.2*-2.5*
85+a 5.6*1.4*0.42.2*1.5*-0.7

Ancillary