• 1
    Howe HL, Wingo PA, Thun MJ, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer (1973 through 1998) featuring cancers with recent increasing trends. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 824884.
  • 2
    Office of Cancer Survivorship. Available at URL: [accessed October 24, 2003].
  • 3
    Courneya KS, Friedenreich CM. Relationship between exercise during treatment and current quality of life among survivors of breast cancer. J Psychosoc Oncol. 1997; 15: 3557.
  • 4
    American Cancer Society. Nutritional advice for cancer survivors. CA Cancer J Clin. 2001; 51: 151152.
  • 5
    Browman GP, Wong G, Hodson E, et al. Influence of cigarette smoking on the efficacy of radiation therapy in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 159163.
  • 6
    Hansen SW, Groth S, Sorensen PG, Rossing N, Rorth M. Enhanced pulmonary toxicity in smokers with germ-cell cancer treated with cis-platinum, vinblastine and beleomycin: a long-term follow up. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1989; 25: 733736.
  • 7
    Benowitz NL. Pharmacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. N Engl J Med. 1988; 319: 13181330.
  • 8
    Dresler CM, Roper C, Patterson GA, Cooper JD. Effect of physician advice on smoking cessation in patients undergoing thoracotomy [abstract]. ABS Chest. 1993; 104: 118S.
  • 9
    Richardson GE, Tucker MA, Venzon DJ, et al. Smoking cessation after successful treatment of small-cell lung cancer is associated with fewer smoking-related second primary cancers. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119: 383390.
  • 10
    Cinciripini PM, Gritz ER, Tsoh JY, Skaar KL. Smoking cessation and cancer prevention. In: HollandJC, editor. Psycho-oncology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998: 2744.
  • 11
    Gritz ER. Smoking and smoking cessation in cancer patients. Br J Addict. 1991; 86: 549554.
  • 12
    Pinto BM, Eakin E, Maruyama NC. Health behavior changes after a cancer diagnosis: what do we know and where do we go from here? Ann Behav Med. 2000; 22: 3852.
  • 13
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Peterson B, McBride C, Lipkus I, Clipp E. Current health behaviors and readiness to pursue lifestyle changes among men and women diagnosed with early stage prostate and breast carcinomas. Cancer. 2000; 88: 674684.
  • 14
    Pinto BM, Maruyama NC, Engebretson TO, Thebarge RW. Exercise participation, mood and coping in early-stage breast cancer survivors. J Psychosoc Oncol. 1998; 16: 4558.
  • 15
    Young-McCaughan S, Sexton DL. A retrospective investigation of the relationship between aerobic exercise and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1991; 18: 751757.
  • 16
    Mulhern RK, Tyc VC, Phipps S, et al. Health-related behaviors of survivors of childhood cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1995; 25: 159165.
  • 17
    Johnston-Early A, Cohen MH, Minna JD, et al. Smoking abstinence and small cell lung cancer survival: an association. JAMA. 1980; 244: 21752179.
  • 18
    Gail MH, Eagan RT, Feld R, et al. Prognostic factors in patients with resected stage I non-small cell lung cancer, a report from the Lung Study Group. Cancer. 1984; 54: 18021813.
  • 19
    Castigliano SG. Influence of continued smoking on the incidence of second primary cancers involving mouth, pharynx, and larynx. J Am Dent Assoc. 1968; 77: 580585.
  • 20
    Moore C. Cigarette smoking and cancer of the mouth, pharynx, and larynx. JAMA. 1971; 218: 553558.
  • 21
    Davison G, Duffy M. Smoking habits of long-term survivors of surgery for lung cancer. Thorax. 1982; 37: 331333.
  • 22
    Stevens MH, Gardner JW, Parkin JL, Johnson KP. Head and neck cancer survival and lifestyle change. Arch Otolaryngol. 1983; 109: 746749.
  • 23
    Knudsen N, Schulman S, Van Den Hoek J, Fowler R. Insights on how to quit smoking: a survey of patients with lung cancer. Cancer Nurs. 1985; 8: 145150.
  • 24
    Spitz MR, Fueger JJ, Eriksen MP, Newell GR. Cigarette smoking patterns of cancer patients. In: EngstromPF, RimerB, MortensonL, editors. Advances in cancer control: screening and prevention research. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1990: 7382.
  • 25
    Orleans CT, Schoenbach VJ, Wagner EH, et al. Self-help quit smoking interventions: effects of self-help materials, social support instructions, and telephone counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1991; 59: 439448.
  • 26
    Day GL, Blot WJ, Shore RE, et al. Second cancer following oral and pharyngeal cancer: role of tobacco and alcohol. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994; 86: 131137.
  • 27
    Corkery JC, Li FP, McDonald JA. Kids who really shouldn't smoke. N Engl J Med. 1979; 300: 1279.
  • 28
    Haupt R, Byrne J, Connelly RR, et al. Smoking habits in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1992; 20: 301306.
  • 29
    Troyer H, Homes GE. Cigarette smoking among childhood cancer survivors [letter]. Am J Dis Child. 1988; 142: 123.
  • 30
    Tyc VL, Hudson MM, Hinds P, Elliot V, Kibby MY. Tobacco use among pediatric cancer survivors: recommendations for developing clinical smoking interventions. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 21942204.
  • 31
    Tao ML, Guo MD, Weiss R, et al. Smoking in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998; 90: 219225.
  • 32
    Shaw NJ, Tweeddale PM, Eden OB. Pulmonary function in childhood leukemia survivors. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1989; 17: 149154.
  • 33
    Lipshultz SE, Colan SD, Gelber RD, et al. Late cardiac effects of doxorubicin therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324: 808815.
  • 34
    Emmons K, Li FP, Whitton J, et al. Predictors of smoking initiation and cessation among childhood cancer survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 16081616.
  • 35
    Ostroff JS, Jacobsen PB, Moadel AB, et al. Prevalence and predictors of continued tobacco use after treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. Cancer. 1995; 75: 569576.
  • 36
    Dresler CM, Bailey M, Roper CR, Patterson GA, Cooper JD. Smoking cessation and lung cancer resection. Chest. 1996; 110: 11991202.
  • 37
    Schnoll RA, Malstrom M, James C, et al. Correlates of tobacco use among smokers and recent quitters diagnosed with cancer. Patient Educ Couns. 2002; 46: 137145.
  • 38
    Raichle KA, Christensen AJ, Ehlers S, Moran PJ, Karnell L, Funk G. Public and private self-consciousness and smoking behavior in head and neck cancer patients. Ann Behav Med. 2001; 23: 120124.
  • 39
    Christensen AJ, Moran PJ, Ehlers SL, Raichle K, Karnell L, Funk G. Smoking and drinking behavior in patients with head and neck cancer: effects of behavioral self-blame and perceived control. J Behav Med. 1999; 22: 407418.
  • 40
    Vander Ark W, DiNardo LJ, Oliver DS. Factors affecting smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope. 1997; 107: 888892.
  • 41
    Gritz ER, Carr CR, Rapkin DA, et al. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation in head and neck cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1993; 2: 261270.
  • 42
    Gritz ER, Carr CR, Rapkin DA, Chang C, Beumer J, Ward PH. A smoking cessation intervention for head and neck cancer patients: trial design, patient accrual and characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1991; 1: 6773.
  • 43
    Griebel B, Wewers ME, Baker CA. The effectiveness of a nurse managed minimal smoking-cessation intervention among hospitalized patients with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1998; 25: 897902.
  • 44
    Wewers ME, Bowen JM, Stanislaw AE, Desimone VB. A nurse-delivered smoking cessation intervention among hospitalized postoperative patients—influence of a smoking-related diagnosis: a pilot study. Heart Lung. 1994; 23: 151156.
  • 45
    Stanislaw AE, Wewers ME. A smoking cessation intervention with hospitalized surgical cancer patients: a pilot study. Cancer Nurs. 1994; 17: 8186.
  • 46
    Fiore MC, Bailey WC, Cohen SJ, et al. Smoking cessation. Clinical practice guideline No. 18. AHCPR Pub. No. 96-0692. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, 1996.
  • 47
    Mermelstein R, Henry A, Hedeker D, Wong SC. How does depressed mood affect smoking cessation outcome[abstract]? Ann Behav Med. 1995; 17(Suppl): S062.
  • 48
    Zelman DC, Brandon TH, Jorenby DE, Baker TB. Measures of affect and nicotine dependence predict differential response to smoking cessation treatments. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992; 60: 943952.
  • 49
    Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun S-S, et al. Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA. 1998; 279: 535540.
  • 50
    Deleyiannis FW-B, Thomas DB, Vaughn TL, Davis S. Alcoholism. Independent predictor of survival in patients with head and neck cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1996; 88: 542549.
  • 51
    Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn DM, et al. Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res. 1988; 48: 32823287.
  • 52
    Chlebowski RT, Aiello E, McTiernan A. Weight loss in breast cancer management. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 11281143.
  • 53
    Kristal AR, Shattuck AL, Bowen DJ, Sponzo RW, Nixon DW. Feasibility of using volunteer research staff to deliver and evaluate a low-fat dietary intervention: the American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Dietary Intervention Project. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997; 6: 459467.
  • 54
    Chlebowski RT, Blackburn GL, Buzzard IM, et al. for the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study. Adherence to a dietary fat intake reduction program in post-menopausal women receiving therapy for early stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1993; 11: 20722080.
  • 55
    Maunsell E, Drolet M, Brisson J, Roberts J, Deschens L. Dietary change after breast cancer: extent, predictors, and relation with psychological distress. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 10171025.
  • 56
    Cheblowski RT, Grosvenor M. The scope of nutrition intervention trials with cancer-related endpoints. Cancer. 1994; 74: 27342738.
  • 57
    Pierce JP, Faerber S, Wright FA, et al., for the Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study Group. A randomized trial of the effect of a plant-based dietary pattern on additional breast cancer events and survival: the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. Controlled Clin Trials. 2002; 23: 728756.
  • 58
    Nordevang E, Callmer E, Marmur A, Holm LE. Dietary intervention in breast cancer patients: effects on food choice. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992; 46: 387396.
  • 59
    Pierce JP, Faerber S, Wright FA, et al. Feasibility of a randomized trial of high-vegetable diet to prevent breast cancer recurrence. Nutr Cancer. 1997; 28: 282288.
  • 60
    Hebert JR, Ebbeling CB, Olendzki BC, et al. Change in women's diet and body mass following intensive intervention for early-stage breast cancer. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001; 101: 421428, 431.
  • 61
    Bleiker EM, Pouwer F, van der Ploeg HM, Leer JWH, Ader HJ. Psychological distress 2 years after diagnosis of breast cancer: frequency and prediction. Patient Educ Couns. 2000; 40: 209217.
  • 62
    Ringdal GI, Ringdal S, Kvinnsland S, Gotesam KG. Quality of life of cancer patients with different prognoses. Qual Life Res. 1994; 3: 143154.
  • 63
    Zabora J, Brintzenhofeszoc K, Curbow B, Hooker C, Piantadosi S. The prevalence of psychological distress by cancer site. Psychooncology. 2001; 10: 1928.
  • 64
    Dow KH, Ferell BR, Leigh S, et al. An evaluation of the quality of life among long-term survivors of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1996; 39: 262273.
  • 65
    Holzner B, Kemmler G, Kopp M, et al. Quality of life in breast cancer patients: not enough attention for long term survivors? Psychosomatics. 2000; 42: 117123.
  • 66
    Ganz PA, Coscarelli A, Fred C, Kahn B, Polinsky ML, Petersen L. Breast cancer survivors: psychosocial concerns and quality of life. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1996; 38: 183199.
  • 67
    Courneya KS, Friedenreich CM. Relationship between exercise pattern across the cancer experience and current quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors. J Altern Complement Med. 1997; 3: 215226.
  • 68
    Pinto BM, Trunzo JT, Reiss P, Shiu S. Exercise participation after diagnosis of breast cancer: trends and effects on mood and quality of life. Psychooncology. 2002; 11: 389400.
  • 69
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity and health: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Promotion, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996.
  • 70
    Courneya KS, Friedenreich CM. Physical exercise and quality of life following cancer diagnosis: a literature review. Ann Behav Med. 1999; 21: 171179.
  • 71
    Pinto BM, Maruyama NC. Exercise in the rehabilitation of breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 1999; 8: 191206.
  • 72
    MacVicar MG, Winningham ML. Promoting the functional capacity of cancer patients. Cancer Bull. 1986; 38: 235239.
  • 73
    Winningham ML, MacVicar MG. The effect of aerobic exercise on patient reports of nausea. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1998; 15: 447450.
  • 74
    Segal R, Evans W, Johnson D, et al. Structured exercise improves physical functioning in women with stages 1 and 2 breast cancer: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19: 657665.
  • 75
    Mock V, Dow KH, Meares CJ. Effects of exercise on fatigue, physical functioning, and emotional distress during radiation therapy for breast cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1997; 24: 9911000.
  • 76
    Berglund G, Bolund C, Gustavsson U, Sjoden P. Starting Again-a comparison study of a group rehabilitation program for cancer patients. Acta Oncol. 1993; 32: 1521.
  • 77
    Berglund G, Bolund C, Gustafsson U, Sjoden P. A randomized study of a rehabilitation program for cancer patients: the “Starting Again” group. Psychooncology. 1994; 3: 109120.
  • 78
    Berglund G, Bolund C, Gustafsson U, Sjoden P. One-year follow-up of the “Starting Again” group rehabilitation program for cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1994; 30A: 17441751.
  • 79
    Dimeo F, Bertz H, Finke J, Fetscher S, Mertelsmann R, Kuel J. An aerobic exercise program for patients with haematological malignancies after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996; 18: 11571160.
  • 80
    Dimeo F, Fetscher S, Lange W, Merteslmann R, Keul J. Effects of aerobic exercise on the physical performance and incidence of treatment-related complications after high-dose chemotherapy. Blood. 1997; 90: 33903394.
  • 81
    Dimeo FC, Tilmann MH, Bertz H, Kanz L, Mertelsmann R, Keul J. Aerobic exercise in the rehabilitation of cancer patients after high dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation. Cancer. 1997; 7: 17171722.
  • 82
    Dimeo FC, Rumberger BG, Keul J. Aerobic exercise as therapy for cancer fatigue. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998; 30: 475478.
  • 83
    Mock V, Burke MB, Sheehan P, et al. A nursing rehabilitation program for women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1994; 21: 899907.
  • 84
    MacVicar M, Winningham ML, Nickel JL. Effects of aerobic interval training on cancer patients' functional capacity. Nurs Res. 1989; 38: 348351.
  • 85
    Winningham ML, MacVicar MG, Bondoc M, Anderson J, Minton J. Effect of aerobic exercise on body weight and composition in patients with breast cancer on adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1989; 16: 683689.
  • 86
    Decker WA, Turner-McGlade JT, Fehir KM. Psychosocial aspects and the physiological effects of a cardiopulmonary exercise program in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute leukemia (AL). Transplant Proc. 1989; 21: 30683069.
  • 87
    Schwartz AL. Daily fatigue patterns and effect of exercise in women with breast cancer. Cancer Pract. 2000; 8: 1624.
  • 88
    Segar ML, Katch VL, Roth RS, et al. The effect of aerobic exercise on self-esteem and depressive and anxiety symptoms among breast cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1998; 25: 107113.
  • 89
    Pinto BM, Clark MM, Maruyama NC, Feder SI. Psychological and fitness changes associated with exercise participation among women with breast cancer. Psychooncology. 2003; 12: 118126.
  • 90
    Winningham ML, MacVicar MG, Burke CA. Exercise for cancer patients: guidelines and precautions. Phys Sportsmed. 1986; 14: 2534.
  • 91
    Goodwin P, Esplen MJ, Butler K, et al. Multidisciplinary weight management in locoregional breast cancer: results of a phase II study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1998; 48: 5364.
  • 92
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Morey MC, Clipp EC, et al. Leading the Way in Exercise and Diet (Project LEAD): intervening to improve function among breast and prostate cancer survivors. Controlled Clin Trials. 2003; 24: 206223.
  • 93
    Rock CL, Demark-Wahnefried W. Can lifestyle modification increase survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer? J Nutr. 2002; 132(11 Suppl. ): 3504S3507S
  • 94
    Buzzard IM, Asp EH, Chlebowski RT, et al. Diet intervention methods to reduce fat intake: nutrient and food group composition of self-selected low-fat diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990; 90: 4250, 53.
  • 95
    de Waard F, Ramlau R, Mulders Y, de Vries T, van Waveren S. A feasibility study on weight reduction in obese postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1993; 2: 233238.
  • 96
    Loprinzi CL, Athman LM, Kardinal CG, et al. Randomized trial of dietician counseling to try to prevent weight gain associated with breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncology. 1996; 53: 228232.
  • 97
    Rock CL, Thomson C, Caan BJ, et al. Reduction in fat intake is not associated with weight loss in most women after breast cancer diagnosis. Cancer. 2001; 9: 2534.
  • 98
    Rose DP, Connolly JM, Chlebowski RT, Buzzard IM, Wynder EL. The effects of a low-fat dietary intervention and tamoxifen adjuvant therapy on the serum estrogen and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations of postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1993; 27: 253262.
  • 99
    National Cancer Institute. The nation's investment in cancer research: a plan and budget proposal for fiscal year 2002. NIH Pub. No. 01-4373. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 2001.
  • 100
    Gustafson DH, Wise M, McTavish F, et al. Development and pilot evaluation of a computer based support system for women with breast cancer. J Psychosoc Oncol. 1993; 11: 6993.
  • 101
    Noell J, Glasgow RE. Interactive technology applications for behavioral counseling. Am J Prev Med. 1999; 17: 269274.
  • 102
    Emmons KM, Marcus BH, Linnan L, Rossi JS, Abrams DB. Mechanisms in multiple risk factor interventions: smoking, physical activity, and dietary fat intake among manufacturing workers. Working Well Research Group. Prev Med. 1994; 23: 481489.
  • 103
    Unger JB. Stages of change of smoking cessation: relationships with other health behaviors. Am J Prev Med. 1996; 12: 134138.
  • 104
    King TK, Marcus BH, Pinto BM, Emmons KM, Abrams DB. Cognitive-behavioral mediators of changing multiple behaviors: smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. Prev Med. 1996; 25: 684691.