• 1
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures 2003. Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 2003.
  • 2
    Pignone M, Rich M, Teutsch S, Berg AO, Lohr KN. Screening for colorectal cancer in adults at average risk: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force. Ann intern Med. 2002; 137: 132141.
  • 3
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Colorectal cancer test use among persons aged ≥ 50 years—United States, 2001. Morb Mort Weekly Rev. 2003: 52: 193196.
  • 4
    Weir HK, Thun MJ, Hankey BF, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2000, featuring the uses of surveillance data for cancer prevention and control. J Nat Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 12761299.
  • 5
    CNN money. Best places to live, New York, NY. Available from url: [accessed March 21, 2004].
  • 6
    Center for Health Workforce Studies. The New York City Physician Workforce, 2000. Albany: SUNY University at Albany, 2004: p A2.
  • 7
    Meyer GS, Jacoby I, Krakauer H, Powel DW, Aurand J, McCardle P. Gastroenterology workforce modeling. JAMA. 1996; 276: 689694.
  • 8
    [Anonymous]. Cancer incidence and mortality in New York State: trends in cancer incidence and mortality by country, 1976–1999. vol 3. Albany: New York State Department of Health, 2002.
  • 9
    [Anonymous]. Summary of vital statistics 2002: the City of New York. New York: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2003.
  • 10
    Feldman GE, McCord CW, Frieden TR. Preventing colorectal cancer. New York: City Health Information, 2003; 22: 14.
  • 11
    Winawer SJ, Fletcher RH, Miller L, et al. Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: clinical guidelines and rationale—update based on new evidence. Gastroenterology. 2003: 124: 544560.
  • 12
    Byers T, Levin B, Rothenberger D, Dodd GD, Smith RA. American Cancer Society guidelines for screening and surveillance for early detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: update 1997. American Cancer Society Detection and Treatment Advisory Group on Colorectal Cancer. CA Cancer J Clin. 1997: 47; 154160.
  • 13
    U.S. Preventative Services Task Force. Screening for colorectal cancer: recommendations and rationale. Ann Intern Med. 2002; 137: 129131.
  • 14
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG, O'Brien MJ, et al. Randomized comparison of surveillance intervals after colonoscopic removal of newly diagnosed adenomatous polyps. The National Polyp Study Workgroup. N Eng J Med. 1993; 328: 901906.
  • 15
    Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church TR, et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood. Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study. N Eng J Med. 1993; 328: 13651371.
  • 16
    Selby JV, Friedman GD, Quesenberry CP Jr, Weiss NS. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Eng J Med. 1992; 326: 653657.
  • 17
    Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Bond JH, Ahnen DJ, Garewal H, Chejfec G. Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. N Eng J Med. 2000; 343: 162168.
  • 18
    Imperiale TF, Wagner DR, Lin CY, Larkin GN, Rogge JD, Ransohoff DF. Risk of advanced proximal neoplasms in asymptomatic adults according to the distal colorectal findings. N Eng J Med. 2000; 343: 169174.
  • 19
    New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. NYC community health data: technical notes. Available from URL: [accessed March 21, 2004].
  • 20
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey questionnaire. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001.
  • 21
    New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Summary of vital statistics 2002: the city of New York. Available from URL: [accessed June 26, 2004].
  • 22
    Ioannou GN, Chapko MK, Dominitz JA. Predictors of colorectal cancer screening participation in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 20822090.
    Direct Link:
  • 23
    Cooper GS, Koroukian SM. Racial disparities in the use of and indications for colorectal procedures in Medicare beneficiaries. Cancer. 2003; 100: 418424.
  • 24
    Farraye FA, Wong M, Hurwitz S, et al. Barriers to endoscopic colorectal cancer screening: are women different from men? Am J Gastroenterol. 2004; 99: 341349.
    Direct Link:
  • 25
    Stockwell DH, Woo P, Jacobson BC, et al. Determinants of colorectal cancer screening in women undergoing mammography. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 18751880.
    Direct Link:
  • 26
    Harewood GC, Wiersema MJ, Melton LJ. A prospective, controlled assessment of factors influencing acceptance of screening colonoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 31863194.
    Direct Link:
  • 27
    Lemon S, Zapka J, Puleo E, Luckmann R, Chasan-Taber L. Colorectal cancer screening participation: comparisons with mammography and prostate-specific antigen screening. Am J Public Health. 2001; 91: 12641272.
  • 28
    Gatto NM, Frucht H, Sundararajan V, Jacobson JS, Grann VR, Neugut AI. Risk of perforation after colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy: a population-based study. J Nat Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 230236.
  • 29
    Meyer GS, Cheng EY, Elting J. Differences between generalists and specialists in characteristics of patients receiving gastrointestinal procedures. J Gen Intern Med. 2000; 15: 188194.
  • 30
    Hsia J, Kemper E, Kiefe C, et al. The importance of health insurance as a determinant of cancer screening: evidence from the Women's Health Initiative. Prev Med. 2000; 31: 261270.
  • 31
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breast and cervical cancer screening among Korean women—Santa Clara, California 1994 and 2000. Morb Mortal Wkly Rev. 2004; 53: 765767.
  • 32
    Kagawa-Singer M, Purat N. Asian-American and Pacific Islander breast and cervical cancer rates and healthy people 2000 objectives. Cancer. 2000; 89: 696705.
  • 33
    Martinez ME, McPhearson RS, Annegers JF, Levin B. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption as risk factors for colorectal adenomatous polyps. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87: 239240.
  • 34
    Nelson DE, Holtzman D, Bolen J, Stanwyk CA, Mack KA. Reliability and validity of measures from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance system (BRFSS). Soz Praventivmed. 2001; 46(Suppl 1): S3S42.
  • 35
    Baier M, Calonge N, Cutter G, et al. Validity of self-reported colorectal cancer screening behavior. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000; 9: 229232.
  • 36
    Frazier AL, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS, Kuntz KM. Cost-effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer in the general population. JAMA. 2000; 284: 19541961.
  • 37
    Levin B, Smith RA, Feldman GE, et al. Promoting early detection tests for colorectal carcinoma and adenomatous polyps–a framework for action: the strategic plan of the national colorectal cancer roundtable. Cancer. 2002; 95: 16181628.