• 1
    Degner LF, Sloan JA. Symptom distress in newly diagnosed ambulatory cancer patients and as a predictor of survival in lung cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1995; 10: 423431.
  • 2
    Montazeri A, Gillis CR, McEwen J. Quality of life in patients with lung cancer. A review of literature from 1970 to 1995. Chest. 1998; 113: 467481.
  • 3
    Cooley ME. Symptoms in adults with lung cancer. A systematic research review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2000; 19: 137153.
  • 4
    Cella D, Herbst RS, Lynch TJ, et al. Clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms and quality of life for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer receiving gefitinib in a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 29462954.
  • 5
    Gralla RJ, Thatcher N. Quality-of-life assessment in advanced lung cancer: considerations for evaluation in patients receiving chemotherapy. Lung Cancer. 2004; 46(Suppl 2): S41S47.
  • 6
    Cooley ME, Short TH, Moriarty HJ. Symptom prevalence, distress, and change over time in adults receiving treatment for lung cancer. Psychooncology. 2003; 12: 694708.
  • 7
    Hollen PJ, Gralla RJ, Kris MG, Cox C. Quality of life during clinical trials: conceptual model for the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). Support Care Cancer. 1994; 2: 213222.
  • 8
    Tranmer JE, Heyland D, Dudgeon D, Groll D, Squires-Graham M, Coulson K. Measuring the symptom experience of seriously ill cancer and noncancer hospitalized patients near the end of life with the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2003; 25: 420429.
  • 9
    Portenoy RK, Thaler HT, Kornblith AB, et al. Symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress in a cancer population. Qual Life Res. 1994; 3: 183189.
  • 10
    Portenoy RK, Thaler HT, Kornblith AB, et al. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress. Eur J Cancer. 1994; 30A(9): 13261336.
  • 11
    Rhodes VA, McDaniel RW, Homan SS, Johnson M, Madsen R. An instrument to measure symptom experience. Symptom occurrence and symptom distress. Cancer Nurs. 2000; 23: 4945.
  • 12
    Cleeland CS, Mendoza TR, Wang XS, et al. Assessing symptom distress in cancer patients: the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory. Cancer. 2000; 89: 16341646.
  • 13
    Fu MR, LeMone P, McDaniel RW. An integrated approach to an analysis of symptom management in patients with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2004; 31: 6570.
  • 14
    Tishelman C, Degner LF, Mueller B. Measuring symptom distress in patients with lung cancer. A pilot study of experienced intensity and importance of symptoms. [erratum appears in Cancer Nurs. 2000;23:163]. Cancer Nurs. 2000; 23: 82–90.
  • 15
    Borjeson S, Hursti TJ, Tishelman C, Peterson C, Steineck G. Treatment of nausea and emesis during cancer chemotherapy. Discrepancies between antiemetic effect and well-being. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002; 24: 345358.
  • 16
    Lough ME, Lindsey AM, Shinn JA, Stotts NA. Impact of symptom frequency and symptom distress on self-reported quality of life in heart transplant recipients. Heart Lung. 1987; 16: 193200.
  • 17
    Kirmayer LJ, Young A, Robbins JM. Symptom attribution in cultural perspective. Can J Psychiatry. 1994; 39: 584595.
  • 18
    McCorkle R, Cooley ME, Shea JA. A user's manual for the Symptom Distress Scale. School of Nursing Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1998.
  • 19
    McCorkle R, Young K. Development of a symptom distress scale. Cancer Nurs. 1978; 1: 373378.
  • 20
    McCorkle R, Benoliel JQ, Donaldson G, Georgiadou F, Moinpour C, Goodell B. A randomized clinical trial of home nursing care for lung cancer patients. Cancer. 1989; 64: 13751382.
  • 21
    McCorkle R, Quint-Benoliel J. Symptom distress, current concerns and mood disturbance after diagnosis of life-threatening disease. Soc Sci Med. 1983; 17: 431438.
  • 22
    Tishelman C. Making sense of sickness experience. Cancer patients' perspectives on their sickness and care in urban Sweden. Aspects of relevance for nursing [published doctoral thesis]. Stockholm (Sweden): Karolinska Institutet, 1993.
  • 23
    Lobchuk MM, Kristjanson L, Degner L, Blood P, Sloan JA. Perceptions of symptom distress in lung cancer patients: I. Congruence between patients and primary family caregivers. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1997; 14: 136146.
  • 24
    Ross RT. Optimal orders in the method of paired comparisons. In: MaranellGM, editor. Scaling: a sourcebook for behavioral scientists. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1974: 106109.
  • 25
    Sloan JA, Doig W, Yeung A. A manual to carry out Thurstone scaling and related analytic procedures. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: University of Manitoba, 1994.
  • 26
    Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today. 2004; 24: 105112.
  • 27
    Spiro SG, Gower NH, Evans MT, Facchini FM, Rudd RM. Recruitment of patients with lung cancer into a randomised clinical trial: experience at two centres. On behalf of the Big Lung Trial Steering Committee. Thorax. 2000; 55: 463465.
  • 28
    Cooley ME, Sarna L, Brown JK, et al. Challenges of recruitment and retention in multisite clinical research. Cancer Nurs. 2003; 26: 376384.
  • 29
    Hopwood P, Stephens RJ, Machin D. Approaches to the analysis of quality of life data: experiences gained from a medical research council lung cancer working party palliative chemotherapy trial. Qual Life Res. 1994; 3: 339352.
  • 30
    McMillan SC, Weitzner MA. Methodologic issues in collecting data from debilitated patients with cancer near the end of life. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2003; 30: 123129.
  • 31
    O'Driscoll M, Corner J, Bailey C. The experience of breathlessness in lung cancer. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 1999; 8: 3743.
  • 32
    Krishnasamy M, Corner J, Bredin M, Plant H, Bailey C. Cancer nursing practice development: understanding breathlessness. J Clin Nurs. 2001; 10: 103108.
  • 33
    Foley KM. Dismantling the barriers: providing palliative and pain care [abstract]. JAMA. 2000; 283: 115.
  • 34
    Di Mola G, Crisci MT. Attitudes towards death and dying in a representative sample of the Italian population. Palliat Med. 2001; 15: 372378.
  • 35
    Tanaka K, Akechi T, Okuyama T, Nishiwaki Y, Uchitomi Y. Impact of dyspnea, pain, and fatigue on daily life activities in ambulatory patients with advanced lung cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002; 23: 417423.
  • 36
    Henly SJ, Kallas KD, Klatt CM, Swenson KK. The notion of time in symptom experiences. Nurs Res. 2003; 52: 410417.
  • 37
    Hinds PS, Schum L, Srivastava DK. Is clinical relevance sometimes lost in summative scores? West J Nurs Res. 2002; 24: 345353.
  • 38
    Butler PV. Linear Analogue self-assessment and procrustean measurement: a critical review of visual analogue scaling in pain assessment. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 1997; 4: 111129.
  • 39
    Wewers ME, Lowe NK. A critical review of visual analogue scales in the measurement of clinical phenomena. Res Nurs Health. 1990; 13: 227236.
  • 40
    Degner LF, Kristjanson LJ, Bowman D, et al. Information needs and decisional preferences in women with breast cancer. JAMA. 1997; 277: 14851492.
  • 41
    Degner LF, Davison BJ, Sloan JA, Mueller B. Development of a scale to measure information needs in cancer care. J Nurs Meas. 1998; 6: 137153.
  • 42
    Davison BJ, Degner LF. Feasibility of using a computer-assisted intervention to enhance the way women with breast cancer communicate with their physicians. Cancer Nurs. 2002; 25: 417424.
  • 43
    World Health Organization. WHO definition of palliative care. Vol. 2004. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.
  • 44
    Singer PA, Bowman KW. Quality care at the end of life. BMJ. 2002; 324: 12911292.