• 1
    The Medical Research Council Brain Tumor Working Party. Randomized trial of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in the adjuvant treatment of high-grade astrocytoma: a medical research council trial. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 19: 509518.
  • 2
    Prados MD, Scott C, Curran WJ, et al. Procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma: a retrospective review of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocols comparing survival with carmustine or PCV adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 33893395.
  • 3
    Westphal M, Hilt DC, Bortey E, et al. A phase 3 trial of local chemotherapy with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel wafers) in patients with primary malignant glioma. Neuro-oncol. 2003; 5: 7988.
  • 4
    Grossman SA, O'Neill A, Grunnet M, et al. Phase III study comparing three cycles of infusional carmustine and cisplatin followed by radiation therapy with radiation therapy and concurrent carmustine in patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial 2394. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 14851491.
  • 5
    Prados MD, Levin V. Biology and treatment of malignant glioma. Semin Oncol. 2000; 27(Suppl 3): 110.
  • 6
    Gutin PH, Prados MD, Phillips TL, et al. External irradiation followed by an interstitial high activity iodine-125 implant “boost” in the initial treatment of malignant gliomas: NCOG Study 6G82–2. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991; 21: 601.
  • 7
    Kornblith PD, Welch WC, Bradley MK. The future of therapy for glioblastoma. Surg Neurol. 1993; 39: 538543.
  • 8
    Loeffler JS, Alexander E, Shea WM, et al. Radiosurgery as part of the initial management of patients with malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 1992; 10: 13791385.
  • 9
    Prados MD, Gutin PH, Phillips TL, et al. Interstitial brachytherapy for newly diagnosed patients with malignant gliomas: the UCSF experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992; 24: 593.
  • 10
    Levin VA, Silver P, Hannigan J, et al. Superiority of post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy with CCNU, procarbazine, and vincristine (PCV) over BCNU for anaplastic gliomas: NCOG 6G61 final report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1990; 18: 321324.
  • 11
    Stewart LA. Chemotherapy in adult high-grade glioma: a systemic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 12 randomized trials. Lancet. 2002; 359: 10111018.
  • 12
    Fine HA, Dear KB, Loeffler JS, et al. Meta-analysis of radiation therapy and without chemotherapy for malignant gliomas in adults. Cancer. 1993; 71: 25852597.
  • 13
    Wong ET, Hess KR, Gleason MJ, et al. Outcomes and prognostic factors in recurrent glioma patients enrolled onto phase II clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 25722578.
  • 14
    Yung WKA, Mechtler L, Gleason MJ. Intravenous carboplatin for recurrent malignant gliomas: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 1991; 9: 860.
  • 15
    Allen JC, Walker R, Luks E, et al. Carboplatin and recurrent childhood brain tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1987; 5: 759763.
  • 16
    Yung WK, Prados MD, Yaya-Tur R, et al. Multicenter phase II trial of temozolomide in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma at first relapse. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 27622771.
  • 17
    See SJ, Levin VA, Yung A, et al. 13-cis-Retinoic acid in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neuro-oncol. 2004; 6: 253258.
  • 18
    Allen JC, Helson L. High-dose cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for recurrent CNS tumors in children. J Neurosurg. 1981; 55: 749756.
  • 19
    Longee DC, Friedman HS, Albright RE, et al. Treatment of patients with recurrent gliomas with cyclophosphamide and vincristine. J Neurosurg. 1990; 72: 583588.
  • 20
    Chamberlain MC, Tsao-Wei D. Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme: salvage therapy with cyclophosphamide. Cancer. 2004; 100: 12131220.
  • 21
    Macdonald DR, Cascino TL, Schold SC, et al. Response criteria for phase II studies of supratentorial malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol. 1990; 8: 12771280.
  • 22
    Prados MD, Gutin PH, Phillips TL, et al. Highly anaplastic astrocytoma: a review of 357 patients treated between 1977 and 1989. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992; 23: 38.
  • 23
    Tortosa A, Vinolas N, Villa S, et al. Prognostic implications of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features in patients with anaplastic gliomas. Cancer. 2003; 97: 10631071.
  • 24
    Glioma Meta-analysis Trialists Group. Chemotherapy in adult high-grade glioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 12 randomized trials. Lancet. 2002; 359: 10111018.
  • 25
    Stupp R, Mason WP, Van Den Bent MJ,et al. Concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. Conclusive results of a randomized phase III trial by the EORTC Brain & RT Groups and NCIC Clinical Trial Groups. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 1s.
  • 26
    Brem H, Piantadosi S, Burger PC, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of safety and efficacy of intraoperative controlled delivery by biodegradable polymers of chemotherapy for recurrent gliomas. Lancet. 1995; 345: 10081012.
  • 27
    Jaeckle KA, Hess KR, Yung A, et al. Phase II evaluation of temozolomide and 13-cis-retinoic acid for the treatment of recurrent and progressive malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 23052311.
  • 28
    Voges J, Reszka R, Grossman A, et al. Image-guided convection-enhanced delivery and gene therapy of glioblastoma. Ann Neurol. 2003; 54: 479487.
  • 29
    Rich JN, Readon DA, Peery T, et al. Phase II trial of gefitinib in recurrent glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 133142.
  • 30
    Duffner PK, Horowitz ME, Krischer JP, et al. The treatment of malignant brain tumors in infants and very young children: an update of the Pediatric Oncology Group experience. Neuro-oncol. 1999: 152161.
  • 31
    Fetell MR, Grossman SA, Balmaceda C. Clinical and pharmacologic study of preirradiation Taxol administrated as a 96-hour infusion in adults with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme [abstract]. Proc Am Soc Clin Onco 1994; 13: 179.
  • 32
    Miller RG Jr. Survival analysis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981: 114118.
  • 33
    Pike MC. Contribution to the discussion on the paper by R. Peto and J. Peto, ‘Asymptotically efficient rank invariant procedures.’ J R Stat Soc, Ser A. 1972; 135: 201203.
  • 34
    Berry G, Kitchin RM, Mock PA. A comparison of two simple hazard ratio estimators based on the logrank test. Stat Med. 1991; 10: 749755.
  • 35
    Lawless JF. Statistical models and methods for lifetime data. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1982: 345354.
  • 36
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation form incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457481.
  • 37
    Mantel N. Chi-square tests with one degree of freedom: extensions of the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. J Am Stat Assoc. 1963; 58: 690700.
  • 38
    Mantel N, Haenszel W. Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1959; 22: 719748.