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Keywords:

  • drug development;
  • Phase I clinical trial;
  • oral;
  • nucleoside;
  • cytotoxic

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The purpose of the current study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, pharmacokinetic profile, and recommended Phase II dose of oral administration of TAS-102, a novel nucleoside formed by the combination of α,α,α-trifluorothymidine (FTD) and a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI: 5-chloro-6-(2-iminopyrrolidin-1-yl)methyl-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione).

METHODS

Eligible patients had advanced solid tumors, adequate organ function, and had not received anticancer therapy in the preceding 4 weeks. TAS-102 was administered orally once daily for 14 days, followed by a 1-week rest, repeated every 3 weeks. The initial dose of TAS-102 administered was 100 mg/m2/day. The first 2 patients treated at that dose experienced substantial toxicity and, therefore, lower dose levels of TAS-102 were subsequently explored.

RESULTS

Fourteen patients were enrolled; all patients were evaluable for toxicity assessment and 12 were evaluable for response. The initial dose explored was 100 mg/m2/day, based on a preclinical monkey model. However, the first 2 patients experienced bone marrow suppression of Grade 3 or 4 in course 1. The protocol was amended to study the next cohort of patients at 50 mg/m2/day. At this dose level no Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were observed in course 1. In the subsequent dose level (60 mg/m2/day), 3 of 6 patients experienced Grade 3 or 4 granulocytopenia as dose-limiting toxicity. Three additional patients for a total of 6 were enrolled at 50 mg/m2/day without occurrence of dose-limiting toxicity. Thus, 50 mg/m2/day was declared the maximum tolerated dose for this schedule.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors' study showed that 50 mg/m2/day was a tolerable dose of the novel antimetabolite FTD in combination with an inhibitor of its inactivating enzyme TP, and this is the recommended Phase II dose. Evaluation of this daily dose in malignancies for which fluoropyrimidines have failed is needed. Cancer 2006. © 2006 American Cancer Society.