SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    New York State Department of Health. Information for a healthy New York. Available at www.health.state.ny.us (accessed Sept 29, 2005).
  • 2
    US Bureau of the Census. 1990 Census of Population. Social and economic characteristics. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1990.
  • 3
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures for African Americans, 2003–2004. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2003.
  • 4
    American Cancer Society. Cancer facts and figures for Hispanics/ Latinos, 2003–2005. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2003.
  • 5
    American Cancer Society. Colorectal cancer facts and figures—Special edition, 2005. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2005.
  • 6
    American Cancer Society. Cancer prevention and early detection—Facts and figures 2003. Altanta: American Cancer Society; 2003.
  • 7
    Institute of Medicine. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2002.
  • 8
    Hart AR, Wicks ACB, Mayberry JF. Colorectal cancer screening in asymptomatic populations. Gut. 1995; 36: 590598.
  • 9
    Manne S, Markowitz A, Winawer S, et al. Correlates of colorectal cancer screening compliance and stage of adoption among siblings of individuals with early onset colorectal cancer. Health Psychol. 2002; 21: 315.
  • 10
    Cokkinides VE, Chao A, Smith RA, Vernon SW, Thun MJ. Correlates of underutilization of colorectal cancer screening among US adults, age 50 years and older. Prev Med. 2003; 36: 8591.
  • 11
    Estrada A, Trevino F, Ray L. Health care utilization barriers among Mexican Americans: Evidence from HHANES 1982–1984. Am J Public Health. 1990; 80: 2731.
  • 12
    Lannin DR, Mathews HF, Mitchell J, Swanson MS, Edwards MS. Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on racial differences in late-stage presentation of breast cancer. JAMA. 1998; 279: 18011807.
  • 13
    Fulton JP, Rakowski W, Jones AC. Determinants of breast cancer screening among inner-city Hispanic women in comparison with other inner-city women. Public Health Rep. 1995; 110: 476482.
  • 14
    Powe BD. Fatalism among elderly African Americans. Effects on colorectal cancer screening. Cancer Nurs. 1995; 18: 385392.
  • 15
    Powe BD. Cancer fatalism—Spiritual perspectives. J Relig Health. 1997; 36: 135144.
  • 16
    Phillips JM, Cohen MZ, Moses G. Breast cancer screening and African American women: Fear, fatalism, and silence. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1999; 26: 561571.
  • 17
    Ashing-Giwa K. The recruitment of breast cancer survivors into cancer control studies: A focus on African American women. J Natl Med Assoc. 1999; 91: 255260.
  • 18
    Neighbors H. Ambulatory medical care among adult Black Americans: The hospital emergency room. J Natl Med Assoc. 1986; 78: 275282.
  • 19
    White-Means SI, Thornton MC. Nonemergency visits to hospital emergency rooms: A comparison of blacks and whites. Milbank Q. 1989; 67: 3557.
  • 20
    U.S. Department of Education. National adult literacy survey—1992. American Literacy Council. Available at www.americanliteracy.com/literacy_figures.htm (accessed Sept 29, 2005).
  • 21
    Michielutte R, Diseker RA. Racial differences in knowledge of cancer: A pilot study. Soc Sci Med. 1982; 16: 245252.
  • 22
    Smith GE, DeHaven MJ, Grudning JP, Wilson GR. African American males and prostate cancer: Assessing knowledge levels in the community. J Natl Med Assoc. 1997; 89: 387391.
  • 23
    McPhee SJ, Richard RJ, Solkowitz SN. Performance of cancer screening in a university general internal medicine practice: Comparison with the 1980 American Cancer Society Guidelines. J Gen Intern Med. 1986; 1: 275281.
  • 24
    Green LW, Kreuter MW, Deeds S, Partridge KB. Health Education Planning: A Diagnostic Approach. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield; 1980.
  • 25
    Green LW, Kreuter MW. Health Promotion Planning: An Educational and Environmental Approach, 2nd edn. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield; 1991.