• Phase II;
  • lenalidomide;
  • renal cell carcinoma;
  • immunomodulators



Lenalidomide (LEN) is a structural and functional analogue of thalidomide that has demonstrated enhanced immunomodulatory properties and a more favorable toxicity profile. A Phase II, open-label study of LEN in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was conducted to determine its safety and clinical activity.


Patients with metastatic RCC received LEN orally at a dose of 25 mg daily for the first 21 days of a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. Time to treatment failure, safety, and survival were secondary endpoints.


In total, 28 patients participated in the trial and were included in the current analysis. Three of 28 patients (11%) demonstrated partial responses and continued to be progression-free for >15 months. Eleven patients (39%) had stable disease that lasted >3 months, including 8 patients who had tumor shrinkage. In total, 6 patients (21%) remained on the trial, and 5 additional patients continued to be followed for survival. The median follow-up for those 11 patients was 13.5 months (range, 8.3–17.0 months). The median survival had not been reached at the time of the current report. Serious adverse events included fatigue (11%), skin toxicity (11%), and neutropenia (36%).


LEN demonstrated an antitumor effect in metastatic RCC, as evidenced by durable partial responses. LEN toxicities were manageable. Further studies will be required to assess the overall activity of LEN in patients with metastatic RCC. Cancer 2006. © 2006 American Cancer Society.