Little attention has been directed towards identifying and addressing the psychosocial needs of ethnic minority and underserved cancer patients. This study describes the development of a psychosocial needs survey and patterns and predictors of need among an ethnically diverse underserved cancer patient population in Bronx, New York. A 34-item psychosocial needs assessment survey was developed to assess 4 categories of need: Informational, Practical, Supportive, and Spiritual. A total of 248 oncology outpatients (48% non-Hispanic whites, 25% African Americans; 19% Hispanic) completed the survey in oncology clinic waiting rooms. The survey demonstrated high internal consistency and face validity. Ethnicity was the sole predictor of needs (P < .02), even after controlling for education, time since diagnosis, treatment status, marital status, and age. The mean percentage of needs endorsed by African Americans, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites respectively was 81%, 85%, 70% for Informational; 63%, 68%, 36% for Practical; 69%, 73%, 48% for Supportive; and 49%, 60%, 31% for Spiritual needs. This needs assessment offers clear directions in which to focus QOL intervention efforts among underserved and ethnic minority cancer patients. Cancer 2007. © 2006 American Cancer Society.