• 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Colorectal Cancer: The Importance of Prevention and Early Detection 2001. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2001.
  • 2
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures, 2006. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2006.
  • 3
    Horner M, Daguise VG, Moseley CM, et al. Colorectal cancer disparities in South Carolina: Early detection, special programs, and descriptive epidemiology. eJ S C Med Assoc. 2005; 101: e207e211.
  • 4
    Alexander D, Chatla C, Funkhouser E, Meleth S, Grizzle WE, Manne U. Post surgical disparity in survival between African-Americans and Caucasians with colonic adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2004; 101: 6676.
  • 5
    Agrawal S, Bhupinderjit A, Bhutani MS, et al. Colorectal cancer in African Americans. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 515523.
    Direct Link:
  • 6
    Podolsky DK. Going the distance—The case for true colorectal cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 207208.
  • 7
    South Carolina Cancer Registry Incidence (finalmast2004-stat) and Mortality (cancermortality9603-stat) Files. Columbia, SC: Office of Public Health, Statistics, and Information Services, Department of Health and Environmental Control; 2004.
  • 8
    Lloyd S. Seeking cecums…through the looking glass. eJ S C Med Assoc. 2003; 99: 127131.
  • 9
    Mehran A, Jaffe P, Efron J, Vernava A, Liberman A. Screening colonoscopy in the asymptomatic 50- to 59-year-old population. Surg Endosc. 2003; 17: 19741977.
  • 10
    Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itkowitz SH, Tumbull BA, Ross ME. Colorectal Cancer Study Group. Fecal DNA versus fecal occult blood for colorectal-cancer screening in an average-risk population. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 27042714.
  • 11
    Rockey DC, Paulson E, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonosocpy: Prospective comparison. Lancet. 2005; 365: 305311.
  • 12
    Governor's Taskforce for Colorectal Cancer. Colorectal cancer screening statistics in four rural South Carolina counties. Unpublished report. Columbia, SC: Governor's Taskforce for Colorectal Cancer; 2000.
  • 13
    Lemon SC, Zapka JG, Estabrook B, Erban S, Luckmann R. Screening for colorectal cancer on the front line. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98: 915923.
    Direct Link:
  • 14
    Eisemon N, Stucky-Marshall L, Talamonti M. Screening for colorectal cancer: Developing a preventive healthcare program utilizing nurse endoscopists. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2001; 24: 1219.
  • 15
    Cash BD, Schoenfeld PS, Ransohoff DF. Licensure, use, and training of paramedical personnel to perform screening flexible sigmoidoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999; 49: 163169.
  • 16
    Sprout J. Nurse endoscopist training: The next step. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2000; 23: 111115.
  • 17
    Kaiser State Health Facts. Available at Accessed on August 24, 2005.
  • 18
    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for oral cancer. Available at Accessed on June 10, 2005.
  • 19
    Monsongego J, Bosch FX, Coursaget P, et al. Cervical cancer control, priorities, and new directions. Int J Cancer. 2004; 108: 329333.
  • 20
    Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Eyre HJ. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer, 2003. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003; 53: 2743.
  • 21
    Carlos R, Fendrick AM, Patterson S, Bernstein S. Associations in breast and colon cancer screening behavior in women. Acad Radiol. 2005; 12: 451458.
  • 22
    Duffy SW, Tabar L, Chen HH, et al. The impact of organized mammography screening service screening on breast carcinoma mortality in seven Swedish counties. Cancer. 2002; 95: 458469.
  • 23
    Sonnenberg A, Delco F, Inadomi JM. Cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med. 2000; 133: 573584.
  • 24
    Harewood GC, Lieberman DA. Colonoscopy practice patterns since introduction of medicare coverage for average-risk screening. Clin Gastroenterol Heptatol. 2004; 2: 7277.
  • 25
    House Resolution Current Resolution 4756, 114th General Assembly, Regular Session (South Carolina 2002).
  • 26
    Walsh JM, Terdiman JP. Colorectal cancer screening: Scientific review. JAMA. 2003; 289: 12881296.
  • 27
    Taylor D. Secrets of a bustling gastrointestinal center. Outpatient Surgery Magazine. 2004; Aug:30.
  • 28
    Freeman ML. Training and competence in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2001; 1: 7386.
  • 29
    Lewis JD, Asch DA, Ginsberg GG, et al. Primary care physicians' decisions to perform flexible sigmoidoscopy. J Gen Intern Med. 1999; 14: 297302.
  • 30
    Denberg TD, Melhado TV, Coombes JM, et al. Predictors of nonadherence to screening colonoscopy. J Gen Intern Med. 2005; 20: 989995.
  • 31
    Wexner SD, Garbus JE, Singh JJ, SAGES Colonoscopy Study Outcomes Group. A prospective analysis of 13,580 colonoscopies. Reevaluation of credentialing guidelines. Surg Endosc. 2001; 15: 251261.
  • 32
    Newman RJ, Nichols DB, Cummings DM. Outpatient colonoscopy by rural family physicians. Ann Fam Med. 2005; 3: 122125.
  • 33
    Anderson ML, Pasha TM, Leighton JA. Endoscopic perforation of the colon: Lessons from a 10-year study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95: 34183422.
    Direct Link:
  • 34
    Probst JC, Moore CG, Glover SH, Samuels ME. Person and place: The compounding effects of race/ethnicity and rurality on health. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94: 16951703.
  • 35
    Sambamoorthi U, McAlpine DD. Racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and access disparities in the use of preventive services among women. Prev Med. 2003; 37: 475484.
  • 36
    Larson SL, Fleishman JA. Rural-urban differences in usual source of care and ambulatory service use: Analyses of national data using Urban Influence Codes. Med Care. 2003; 41: III65III74.
  • 37
    Hueston WJ, Hubbard ET. Preventive services for rural and urban African-American adults. Arch Fam Med. 2000; 9: 263266.
  • 38
    Fise T. Colonoscopy remains most sensitive, best test for colorectal cancer screening. Available at Accessed on September 10, 2004.
  • 39
    American Medical Association. Graduate medical education. JAMA. 2004; 292: 10991113.
  • 40
    Presser S. Data collection mode and social desirability bias in self-reported religious attendance. Am Soc Rev. 1998; 63: 137145.
  • 41
    Daguise VG, Burch JB, Horner M-J, et al. Colorectal cancer disparities in South Carolina: Descriptive epidemiology, screening, special programs, and future direction. J S C Med Assoc. 2006; 102: 212220.
  • 42
    Lloyd S, Williams D, Scott D. The healing arts: Bringing colon cancer screening to the masses through faith-based initiatives. Poster presented at the ACS Health Disparities Conference, Atlanta, 2005.