• 1
    Jamal A,Murray T,Ward E, et al. Cancer Statistics, 2005. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 1030.
  • 2
    Brandeis J,Pashos CL,Henning JM,Litwin MS. A nationwide charge comparison of the principal treatments for early stage prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2000; 89: 17921799.
  • 3
    Bukhardt JH,Litwin MS,Rose CM, et al. Comparing the costs for radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy for the initial treatment of early stage prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 28692875.
  • 4
    Jayadevappa R,Chhatre S,Weiner M,Bloom BS,Malkowicz SB. Medical care cost of patients with prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2005; 23: 155162.
  • 5
    Penson DF,Moul JW,Evans CP,Doyle JJ,Gandhi S,Lamerato L. The economic burden of metastatic and prostate specific antigen progression in patients with prostate cancer: findings from a retrospective analysis of health plan data. J Urology. 2004; 171: 22502254.
  • 6
    Penson DF,Schonfeld WH,Flanders SC, et al. Relationship of first-year costs of treating localized prostate cancer to initial choice of therapy and stage at diagnosis: Results from the CaPSURE database. Urology. 2001; 57: 499503.
  • 7
    Piper NY,Kusada L,Lance R,Foley J,Moul J,Seay T. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: an expensive way to die. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2002; 5: 164166.
  • 8
    Ruchlin HS,Pellissier JM. An economic overview of prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2001; 92: 27962810.
  • 9
    Taplin SH,Barlow W,Urban N, et al. Stage, age, comorbidity, and direct costs of colon, prostate, and breast cancer care. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995; 87: 417426.
  • 10
    Lubeck DP,Litwin MS,Henning JM, et al. The CaPSURE database: a methodology for clinical practice and research in prostate cancer. CaPSURE Research Panel. Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor. Urology. 1996; 48: 773777.
  • 11
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. H-CUPnet National and regional estimates on hospital use for all patients: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National statistics HCUP Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS)-principal procedure only and principle diagnosis only, 2002 Available at:
  • 12
    FlemingT, ed. Redbook: pharmacy's fundamental reference. Montvale, NJ: Thomson; 2004.
  • 13
    Davis JB. Medical fees in the United States: nationwide charges for medicine, surgery, laboratory, radiology and allied health services. 10th ed. Los Angeles: Practice Management Information Corporation (PMIC); 2004.
  • 14
    US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bureau of Labor Statistics Data, Consumer Price Index All urban consumers: US Department of Labor, Available at: Accessed May, 2006.
  • 15
    D'Amico AV,Whittington R,Malkowivz SB, et al. The combination of preoperative prostate specific antigen and postoperative pathological findings to predict prostate specific antigen outcome in clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urology. 1998; 160(6 pt 1): 20962101.
  • 16
    D'Amico AV,Whittington R,Shultz D,Malkowivz SB,Tomaszewski JE,Wein A. Outcome based staging for clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. J Urology. 1997; 158: 14221426.
  • 17
    Nelson WB. Recurrent events data analysis for product repairs, disease recurrences and other applications. ASA-SIAM Series on Statistics and Applied Probability 10. Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics; 2002.
  • 18
    Raman R,Hedeker D. A mixed-effects regression model for three-level ordinal response data. Stat Med. 2005; 24: 33313345.
  • 19
    Scardino PT,Anscher M,Babaian RJ, et al. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: prostate cancer-version 2.2005. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc.; 2006. Available at:
  • 20
    Grossfeld GD,Li YP,Lubeck DP,Carroll PR. Patterns of failure after primary local therapy for prostate cancer and rationale for secondary therapy. Urology. 2002; 60(3 suppl 1): 5762. Discussion 62–63.
  • 21
    Stephenson AJ,Kattan MW,Eastham JA, et al. Defining biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: a proposal for a standardized definition. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 39733978.
  • 22
    Emanuel EJ. Cost savings at the end of life: What do the data show? JAMA. 1996; 275: 19071914.
  • 23
    Emanuel EJ,Emanuel LL. The economics of dying. The illusion of cost savings at the end of life. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 540544.
  • 24
    Lubitz JD,Riley GF. Trends in Medicare payments in the last year of life. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 10921096.
  • 25
    Payne SK,Coyne P,Smith TJ. The health economics of palliative care. Oncology (Williston Park). 2002; 16: 801808. Discussion 808, 811–812.
  • 26
    Riley GF,Lubitz JD. Longitudinal patterns of Medicare use by cause of death. Health Care Financ Rev. 1989; 11: 112.
  • 27
    Greene KL,Elkin EP,Wilson L, et al. Long-term health care resource utilization in men with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy: Data from CaPSURE [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(16S pt I suppl). Abstract 6078;2005 ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings.