• 1
    Obendorfer S. Karzinoide Rumoren des Dunndarms. Frankf Z Pathol. 1907; 1: 425429.
  • 2
    Talamonti M,Stuart K,Yao JC. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: how aggressive should we be? In: PerryM, ed. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2004 Education Book. Alexandria, VA: American Society of Clinical Oncology; 2004: 206215.
  • 3
    Lubensky IA,Pack S,Ault D, et al. Multiple neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas in von Hippel-Lindau disease patients: histopathological and molecular genetic analysis. Am J Pathol. 1998; 153: 223231.
  • 4
    Hammel PR,Vilgrain V,Terris B, et al. Pancreatic involvement in von Hippel-Lindau disease.The Groupe Francophone d'Etude de la Maladie de von Hippel-Lindau. Gastroenterology. 2000; 119: 10871095.
  • 5
    Verhoef S,van Diemen-Steenvoorde R,Akkersdijk WL, et al. Malignant pancreatic tumour within the spectrum of tuberous sclerosis complex in childhood. Eur J Pediatr. 1999; 158: 284287.
  • 6
    Johnson L,Weaver M. Von Recklinghausen's disease and gastrointestinal carcinoids. JAMA. 1981; 245: 2496.
  • 7
    Wang GG,Yao JC,Worah S, et al. Comparison of genetic alterations in neuroendocrine tumors: frequent loss of chromosome 18 in ileal carcinoid tumors. Mod Pathol. 2005; 18: 10791087.
  • 8
    Hurr K,Kemp B,Silver SA,el-Naggar AK. Microsatellite alteration at chromosome 3p loci in neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine lung tumors. Histogenetic and clinical relevance. Am J Pathol. 1996; 149: 613620.
  • 9
    Kovatich A,Friedland DM,Druck T, et al. Molecular alterations to human chromosome 3p loci in neuroendocrine lung tumors. Cancer. 1998; 83: 11091117.
  • 10
    Zhao J,Moch H,Scheidweiler AF, et al. Genomic imbalances in the progression of endocrine pancreatic tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001; 32: 364372.
  • 11
    Chaudhry A,Funa K,Oberg K. Expression of growth factor peptides and their receptors in neuroendocrine tumors of the digestive system. Acta Oncol. 1993; 32: 107114.
  • 12
    Krishnamurthy S,Dayal Y. Immunohistochemical expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in gastrointestinal carcinoids. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997; 21: 327333.
  • 13
    Nilsson O,Wangberg B,Kolby L,Schultz GS,Ahlman H. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and its receptor in human neuroendocrine tumours. Int J Cancer. 1995; 60: 645651.
  • 14
    Papouchado B,Erickson LA,Rohlinger AL, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor and activated epidermal growth factor receptor expression in gastrointestinal carcinoids and pancreatic endocrine carcinomas. Mod Pathol. 2005; 18: 13291335.
  • 15
    von Wichert G,Jehle PM,Hoeflich A, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I is an autocrine regulator of chromogranin A secretion and growth in human neuroendocrine tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 45734581.
  • 16
    Terris B,Scoazec JY,Rubbia L, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in digestive neuroendocrine tumours. Histopathology. 1998; 32: 133138.
  • 17
    Yao JC,Wang L,Wei D, et al. Association between expression of transcription factor Sp1 and increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression, advanced stage, and poor survival in patients with resected gastric cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10(12 Pt 1): 41094117.
  • 18
    Shi Q,Le X,Abbruzzese JL, et al. Constitutive Sp1 activity is essential for differential constitutive expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 41434154.
  • 19
    Evers BM,Townsend CMJr,Upp JR, et al. Establishment and characterization of a human carcinoid in nude mice and effect of various agents on tumor growth. Gastroenterology. 1991; 101: 303311.
  • 20
    Huang S,Mills L,Mian B, et al. Fully humanized neutralizing antibodies to interleukin-8 (ABX-IL8) inhibit angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis of human melanoma. Am J Pathol. 2002; 161: 125134.
  • 21
    Couvelard A,O'Toole D,Turley H, et al. Microvascular density and hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in pancreatic endocrine tumours: negative correlation of microvascular density and VEGF expression with tumour progression. Br J Cancer. 2005; 92: 94101.
  • 22
    Pavel ME,Hassler G,Baum U,Hahn EG,Lohmann T,Schuppan D. Circulating levels of angiogenic cytokines can predict tumour progression and prognosis in neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005; 62: 434443.
  • 23
    von Marschall Z,Scholz A,Cramer T, et al. Effects of interferon alpha on vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription and tumor angiogenesis [Comment]. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 437448.
  • 24
    Konno H,Arai T,Tanaka T, et al. Antitumor effect of a neutralizing antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor on liver metastasis of endocrine neoplasm. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1998; 89: 933939.
  • 25
    Bello CL,Deprimo SE,Friece C, et al. Analysis of circulating biomarkers of sunitinib malate in patients with unresectable neuroendocrine tumors (NET): VEGF, IL-8, and soluble VEGF receptors 2 and 3. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24(18S): 4045.
  • 26
    Schilling LJ,Farnham PJ. The bidirectionally transcribed dihydrofolate reductase and rep-3a promoters are growth regulated by distinct mechanisms. Cell Growth Differ. 1995; 6: 541548.
  • 27
    Noe V,Chen C,Alemany C, et al. Cell-growth regulation of the hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1. Eur J Biochem. 1997; 249: 1320.
  • 28
    Zhang X,Li Y,Dai C,Yang J,Mundel P,Liu Y. Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors synergistically regulate HGF receptor gene expression in kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003; 284: F8294.
  • 29
    Kumar AP,Butler AP. Serum responsive gene expression mediated by Sp1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998; 252: 517523.
  • 30
    DiMario JX. Activation and repression of growth factor receptor gene transcription [Review]. Int J Mol Med. 2002; 10: 6571.
  • 31
    Parakati R,DiMario JX. Sp1- and Sp3-mediated transcriptional regulation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in chicken skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 92789285.
  • 32
    Patel SG,DiMario JX. Two distal Sp1-binding cis-elements regulate fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene expression in myoblasts. Gene. 2001; 270: 171180.
  • 33
    Kutoh E,Margot JB,Schwander J. Identification and characterization of the putative retinoblastoma control element of the rat insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 gene. Cancer Lett. 1999; 136: 187194.
  • 34
    Milanini J,Vinals F,Pouyssegur J,Pages G. p42/p44 MAP kinase module plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene in fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 1816518172.
  • 35
    Sorensen P,Wintersberger E. Sp1 and NF-Y are necessary and sufficient for growth-dependent regulation of the hamster thymidine kinase promoter. J Biol Chem. 1999; 274: 3094330949.
  • 36
    Spencer JA,Misra RP. Expression of the SRF gene occurs through a Ras/Sp/SRF-mediated-mechanism in response to serum growth signals. Oncogene. 1999; 18: 73197327.
  • 37
    Xie K,Wei D,Huang S. Transcriptional anti-angiogenesis therapy of human pancreatic cancer. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2006; 17: 147156.
  • 38
    Rigaud G,Missiaglia E,Moore PS, et al. High resolution allelotype of nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumors: identification of two molecular subgroups with clinical implications. Cancer Res. 2001; 61: 285292.
  • 39
    Maher ER,Kaelin WGJr. von Hippel-Lindau disease. Medicine (Balt). 1997; 76: 381391.
  • 40
    Siemeister G,Weindel K,Mohrs K,Barleon B,Martiny-Baron G,Marme D. Reversion of deregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human renal carcinoma cells by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein. Cancer Res. 1996; 56: 22992301.
  • 41
    Stratmann R,Krieg M,Haas R,Plate KH. Putative control of angiogenesis in hemangioblastomas by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1997; 56: 12421252.
  • 42
    Chen LI,Nishinaka T,Kwan K, et al. The retinoblastoma gene product RB stimulates Sp1-mediated transcription by liberating Sp1 from a negative regulator. Mol Cell Biol. 1994; 14: 43804389.
  • 43
    Mukhopadhyay D,Knebelmann B,Cohen HT,Ananth S,Sukhatme VP. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene product interacts with Sp1 to repress vascular endothelial growth factor promoter activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1997; 17: 56295639.
  • 44
    Milanini-Mongiat J,Pouyssegur J,Pages G. Identification of two Sp1 phosphorylation sites for p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases: their implication in vascular endothelial growth factor gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277: 2063120639.
  • 45
    Dong Q,Debelenko LV,Chandrasekharappa SC, et al. Loss of heterozygosity at 11q13: analysis of pituitary tumors, lung carcinoids, lipomas, and other uncommon tumors in subjects with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82: 14161420.
  • 46
    Gortz B,Roth J,Krahenmann A, et al. Mutations and allelic deletions of the MEN1 gene are associated with a subset of sporadic endocrine pancreatic and neuroendocrine tumors and not restricted to foregut neoplasms. Am J Pathol. 1999; 154: 429436.
  • 47
    Cohen T,Gluzman-Poltorak Z,Brodzky A, et al. Neuroendocrine cells along the digestive tract express neuropilin-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001; 284: 395403.
  • 48
    Yao JC,Ng C,Hoff PM, et al. Improved progression free survival (PFS), and rapid, sustained decrease in tumor perfusion among patients with advanced carcinoid treated with bevacizumab. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 309s.
  • 49
    Kulke MH,Lenz HJ,Meropol NJ, et al. A phase 2 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SU11248 in patients (pts) with unresectable neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 310s.