Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common malignancy in dialysis patients of Taiwan. The reason for such a high incidence of TCC is undetermined. The correlation between the underlying renal disease and the development of TCC was investigated.
The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and outcome of 1537 chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients from 1993 to 2002. The incidence of TCC was computed. The Cox regression method was used to analyze the role of potential risk factors.
After a mean dialysis duration of 46.5 months, 26 (1.69%) patients with TCC were diagnosed. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of TCC was 48.2 as compared with the general population and the SIR of TCC seemed higher in women (65.1) and in the age group 50 to 54 years (173.6). Of them, most cases showed no definite etiology. All these cases showed bilateral contracted kidneys. Nonnephrotic proteinuria was found in all cases and trace glucosuria was found in 17 (65%). Painless gross hematuria was the cardinal symptom and distant metastasis was rare. Also, TCC in upper urinary tracts were common and found in 14 (54%) of patients. Age at the time of dialysis, female sex, compound analgesic use, and Chinese herb use had statistical significance as risk factors (P < .05).
Chronic HD patients have a high risk of TCC in Taiwan, especially in female and middle-aged patients. The study indicated that chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (CTIN) is the most likely underlying renal disease in HD patients with TCC, a high percentage of the CTIN related to the usage of Chinese herbs or compound analgesics may contribute to the development of TCC, whereas diabetes or chronic glomerulonephritis play only a minor role. Cancer 2007. © 2007 American Cancer Society.