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Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype†
A population-based study from the California cancer Registry
Article first published online: 26 MAR 2007
Copyright © 2007 American Cancer Society
Volume 109, Issue 9, pages 1721–1728, 1 May 2007
How to Cite
Bauer, K. R., Brown, M., Cress, R. D., Parise, C. A. and Caggiano, V. (2007), Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype. Cancer, 109: 1721–1728. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22618
The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and endorsement by the State of California, Department of Health Services, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their Contractors and Subcontractors is not intended nor should be inferred.
- Issue published online: 18 APR 2007
- Article first published online: 26 MAR 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 JAN 2007
- Manuscript Revised: 7 DEC 2006
- Manuscript Received: 26 SEP 2006
- California Department of Health Services
- California Health and Safety Code Section. Grant Number: 103885
- National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Grant Number: N01-PC-35136
- Northern California Cancer Center. Grant Number: N01-PC-35139
- University of Southern California. Grant Number: N02-PC-15105
- Public Health Institute
- Centers for Disease Control
- Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries. Grant Number: U55/CCR921930-02
- Public Health Institute
- breast neoplasms;
- estrogen receptors;
- progesterone receptors;
- continental population groups;
- ethnic groups;
- health disparities
Tumor markers are becoming increasingly important in breast cancer research because of their impact on prognosis, treatment, and survival, and because of their relation to breast cancer subtypes. The triple-negative phenotype is important because of its relation to the basal-like subtype of breast cancer.
Using the population-based California Cancer Registry data, we identified women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer between 1999 and 2003. We examined differences between triple-negative breast cancers compared with other breast cancers in relation to age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), stage at diagnosis, tumor grade, and relative survival.
A total of 6370 women were identified as having triple-negative breast cancer and were compared with the 44,704 women with other breast cancers. Women with triple-negative breast cancers were significantly more likely to be under age 40 (odds ratio [OR], 1.53), and non-Hispanic black (OR, 1.77) or Hispanic (OR, 1.23). Regardless of stage at diagnosis, women with triple-negative breast cancers had poorer survival than those with other breast cancers, and non-Hispanic black women with late-stage triple-negative cancer had the poorest survival, with a 5-year relative survival of only 14%.
Triple-negative breast cancers affect younger, non-Hispanic black and Hispanic women in areas of low SES. The tumors were diagnosed at later stage and were more aggressive, and these women had poorer survival regardless of stage. In addition, non-Hispanic black women with late-stage triple-negative breast cancer had the poorest survival of any comparable group. Cancer 2007. © 2007 American Cancer Society.