• 1
    Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Eyre HJ. American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006; 56: 1125.
  • 2
    Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Hwang I, et al. Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy to screen for colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults. N Engl J Med. 2003; 349: 21912200.
  • 3
    Sonnenberg A, Delco F, Bauerfeind P. Is virtual colonoscopy a cost-effective option to screen for colorectal cancer? Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94: 22682274.
    Direct Link:
  • 4
    Ladabaum U, Song K, Fendrick AM. Colorectal neoplasia screening with virtual colonoscopy: when, at what cost, and with what national impact? Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2: 554563.
  • 5
    Hassan C, Zullo A, Lahgi A, et al. Colon cancer prevention in Italy: cost-effectiveness analysis with CT colonography and endoscopy. Dig Liver Dis. 2007; 39: 242250. Epub 2006 Nov 16.
  • 6
    Vijan S, Hwang I, Inadomi J, et al. The cost-effectiveness of CT colonography in screening for colorectal neoplasia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007; 102: 380390. Epub 2006 Dec 11.
    Direct Link:
  • 7
    Zalis ME, Barish MA, Choi JR, et al., for the Working Group on Virtual Colonoscopy. CT colonography reporting and data system: a consensus proposal. Radiology. 2005; 236: 39.
  • 8
    Pickhardt PJ, Taylor AJ, Kim DH, Reichelderfer M, Gopal DV, Pfau PR. Screening for colorectal neoplasia with CT colonography: initial experience from the first year of coverage by third-party payers. Radiology. 2006; 241: 417425.
  • 9
    Pickhardt PJ, Lee AD, McFarland EG, Taylor AJ. Linear polyp measurement at CT colonography: in vitro and in vivo comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional displays. Radiology. 2005; 236: 872878.
  • 10
    U.S. Census Bureau. Annual population estimates. Available at URL: Accessed November 5, 2005.
  • 11
    Mulhall BP, Veerappan GR, Jackson JL. Meta-analysis: computed tomographic colonography. Ann Intern Med. 2005; 142: 635650.
  • 12
    Halligan S, Altman DG, Taylor SA, et al. CT colonography in the detection of colorectal polyps and cancer: systematic review, meta-analysis, and proposed minimum data set for study level reporting. Radiology. 2005; 237: 893904.
  • 13
    Lieberman DA, Weiss DG, Bond JH, et al. Use of colonoscopy to screen asymptomatic adults for colorectal cancer. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group 380. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 162168.
  • 14
    Imperiale TF, Wagner DR, Lin CY, et al. Risk of advanced proximal neoplasms in asymptomatic adults according to the distal colorectal findings. N Engl J Med. 2000; 343: 169174.
  • 15
    Cotton PB, Durkalski VL, Pineau BC, et al. Computed tomographic colonography (virtual colonoscopy): a multicenter comparison with standard colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasia. JAMA. 2004; 291: 17131719.
  • 16
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006; 56: 106130.
  • 17
    Frazier AL, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS, Kuntz KM. Cost-effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer in the general population. JAMA. 2000; 284: 19541961.
  • 18
    Seeff LC, Manninen DL, Dong FB, et al. Is there endoscopic capacity to provide colorectal cancer screening to the unscreened population in the United States? Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 16611677.
  • 19
    Rockey DC, Paulsen EK, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison. Lancet. 2005; 365: 305311.
  • 20
    Johnson CD, Harmsen WS, Wilson LA, et al. Prospective blinded evaluation of computed tomographic colonography for screen detection of colorectal polyps. Gastroenterology. 2003; 125: 311319.
  • 21
    Bond JH. Clinical relevance of the small colorectal polyp. Endoscopy. 2001; 33: 454457.
  • 22
    Pickhardt PJ, Choi JR, Hwang I, Schindler WR. Nonadenomatous polyps at CT colonography: prevalence, size distribution, and detection rates. Radiology. 2004; 232: 784790.
  • 23
    Odom SR, Duffy SD, Barone JE, Ghevariya V, McClane SJ. The rate of adenocarcinoma in endoscopically removed colorectal polyps. Am Surg. 2005; 71: 10241026.
  • 24
    van Dam J, Cotton P, Johnson CD, et al. AGA future trends report: CT colonography. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 970984.
  • 25
    Winawer SJ, Zauber AG. The advanced adenoma as the primary target of screening. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2002; 12: 19.
  • 26
    Rex DK. PRO: Patients with polyps smaller than 1 cm on computed tomographic colonography should be offered colonoscopy and polypectomy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 19031905.
    Direct Link:
  • 27
    Ransohoff DF. CON: Immediate colonoscopy is not necessary in patients who have polyps smaller than 1 cm on computed tomographic colonography. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; 100: 19051907.
    Direct Link:
  • 28
    Pickhardt PJ. CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy) for primary colorectal screening: challenges facing clinical implementation. Abdom Imaging. 2005; 30: 14.
  • 29
    Hofstad B, Vatn MH, Larsen S, Osnes M. Growth of colorectal polyps: recovery and evaluation of unresected polyps of less than 10 mm, 1 year after detection. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1994; 29: 640645.
  • 30
    Hofstad B, Vatn MH, Andersen SN, et al. Growth of colorectal polyps: redetection and evaluation of unresected polyps for a period of three years. Gut. 1996; 39: 449456.
  • 31
    Welin S, Youker J, Spratt JSJr. The rates and patterns of growth of 375 tumors of the large intestine and rectum observed serially by double contrast enema study (Malmö Technique). Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1963; 90: 673687.
  • 32
    Knoernschild HE. Growth rate and malignant potential of colonic polyps: early results. Surg Forum. 1963; 14: 137138.
  • 33
    Hoff G, Foerster A, Vatn MH, et al. Epidemiology of polyps in the rectum and colon: recovery and evaluation of unresected polyps 2 years after detection. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21: 853862.
  • 34
    Bersentes K, Fennerty MB, Sampliner RE, Garewal HS. Lack of spontaneous regression of tubular adenomas in two years of follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997; 92: 11171120.
  • 35
    Johnson DA, Gurney MS, Volpe RJ, et al. A prospective study of the prevalence of colonic neoplasms in asymptomatic patients with an age-related risk. Am J Gastroenterol. 1990; 85: 969974.
  • 36
    DiSario JA, Foutch PG, Mai HD, et al. Prevalence and malignant potential of colorectal polyps in asymptomatic, average-risk men. Am J Gastroenterol. 1991; 86: 941945.
  • 37
    Loeve F, Boer R, Zauber AG, et al. National Polyp Study data: evidence for regression of adenomas. Int J Cancer. 2004; 111: 633639.
  • 38
    Stryker SJ, Wolff BG, Culp CE, et al. Natural history of untreated colonic polyps. Gastroenterology. 1987; 93: 10091013.
  • 39
    RiesLA, KosaryCL, HankeyBF, et al., editors. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1973–1994. NIH Pub. No. 97-2789. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 1997.
  • 40
    Chen CD, Yen MF, Wang WM, et al. A case-cohort study for the disease natural history of adenoma-carcinoma and de novo carcinoma and surveillance of colon and rectum after polypectomy: implication for efficacy of colonoscopy. Br J Cancer. 2003; 88: 18661873.
  • 41
    Ladabaum U, Chopra CL, Huang G, et al. Aspirin as an adjunct to screening for prevention of sporadic colorectal cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 135: 769781.
  • 42
    Hixson LJ, Fennerty MB, Sampliner RE, et al. Prospective blinded trial of the colonoscopic miss-rate of large colorectal polyps. Gastrointest Endosc. 1991; 37: 125127.
  • 43
    Rex DK, Cutler CS, Lemmel GT, et al. Colonoscopic miss rates of adenomas determined by back-to-back colonoscopies. Gastroenterology. 1997; 112: 2428.
  • 44
    Pickhardt PJ, Nugent PA, Mysliwiec PA, Choi JR, Schindler WR. Location of adenomas missed at optical colonoscopy. Ann Intern Med. 2004; 141: 352359.
  • 45
    Van Gelder RE, Nio CY, Florie J, et al. Computed tomographic colonography compared with colonoscopy in patients at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 4148.
  • 46
    Bressler B, Paszat LF, Vinden C, et al. Colonoscopic miss rate for right-sided colon cancer: a population-based analysis. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 452456.
  • 47
    Rex DK, Rahmani EY, Haseman JH, et al. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and barium enema for detection of colorectal cancer in clinical practice. Gastroenterology. 1997; 112: 1723.
  • 48
    van Dam J, Bond JH, Sivak MVJr. Fecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer. Arch Intern Med. 1995; 155: 23892402.
  • 49
    Riff ER, Dehaan K, Garewal GS. The role of sigmoidoscopy for asymptomatic patients. Results of three annual screening sigmoidoscopies, polypectomy, and subsequent surveillance colonoscopy in a primary-care setting. Cleve Clin J Med. 1990; 57: 131136.
  • 50
    Kirschner CG, Davis SJ, Evans D, et al. Current Procedural Terminology: CPT. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1999.
  • 51
    Seare S, Speirs L, Bernard SP, et al. DRG Guide. Salt Lake City: Medicode; 1997.
  • 52
    Garbay JR, Suc B, Rotman N, et al. Multicentre study of surgical complications of colonoscopy. Br J Surg. 1996; 83: 4244.
  • 53
    Sonnenberg A, Delco F, Inadomi JM. Cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer. Ann Intern Med. 2000; 133: 573584.