• 1
    Jemal A,Siegel R,Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin. 2006; 56: 106130.
  • 2
    Hock LM,Lynch J,Balaji KC. Increasing incidence of all stages of kidney cancer in the last 2 decades in the United States: an analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end results program data. J Urol. 2002; 167: 5760.
  • 3
    Lam JS,Breda A,Belldegrun AS,Figlin RA. Evolving principles of surgical management and prognostic factors for outcome in renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 55655575.
  • 4
    GreeneFL, PageDL, FlemingID, et al., editors. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual.6th ed. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2002.
  • 5
    Han KR,Bui MH,Pantuck AJ, et al. TNM T3a renal cell carcinoma: adrenal gland involvement is not the same as renal fat invasion. J Urol. 2003; 169: 899903; discussion 3–4.
  • 6
    Thompson RH,Leibovich BC,Cheville JC, et al. Should direct ipsilateral adrenal invasion from renal cell carcinoma be classified as pT3a? J Urol. 2005; 173: 918921.
  • 7
    Alamdari FI,Ljungberg B. Adrenal metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: a recommendation for adjustment of the TNM staging system. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2005; 39: 277282.
  • 8
    Moinzadeh A,Libertino JA. Prognostic significance of tumor thrombus level in patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumor thrombus extension. Is all T3b the same? J Urol. 2004; 171(2 pt 1): 598601.
  • 9
    Blute ML,Leibovich BC,Lohse CM,Cheville JC,Zincke H. The Mayo Clinic experience with surgical management, complications and outcome for patients with renal cell carcinoma and venous tumour thrombus. BJU Int. 2004; 94: 3341.
  • 10
    Kim HL,Zisman A,Han KR,Figlin RA,Belldegrun AS. Prognostic significance of venous thrombus in renal cell carcinoma. Are renal vein and inferior vena cava involvement different? J Urol. 2004; 171(2 pt 1): 588591.
  • 11
    Tsui KH,Shvarts O,Smith RB,Figlin RA,deKernion JB,Belldegrun A. Prognostic indicators for renal cell carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of 643 patients using the revised 1997 TNM staging criteria. J Urol. 2000; 163: 10901095; quiz 295.
  • 12
    Bonsib SM. The renal sinus is the principal invasive pathway: a prospective study of 100 renal cell carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004; 28: 15941600.
  • 13
    Thompson RH,Leibovich BC,Cheville JC, et al. Is renal sinus fat invasion the same as perinephric fat invasion for pT3a renal cell carcinoma? J Urol. 2005; 174(4 pt 1): 12181221.
  • 14
    Eble JN, World Health Organization. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. Lyon and Oxford: IARC Press and Oxford University Press distributor; 2004.
  • 15
    Ficarra V,Novara G,Iafrate M, et al. Proposal for reclassification of the TNM staging system in patients with locally advanced (pT3-4) renal cell carcinoma according to the cancer-related outcome. Eur Urol. 2006; 51: 722729.
  • 16
    Lane BR,Kattan MW. Predicting outcomes in renal cell carcinoma. Curr Opin Urol. 2005; 15: 289297.
  • 17
    Thompson RH,Cheville JC,Lohse CM, et al. Reclassification of patients with pT3 and pT4 renal cell carcinoma improves prognostic accuracy. Cancer. 2005; 104: 5360.
  • 18
    Leibovich BC,Cheville JC,Lohse CM, et al. Cancer specific survival for patients with pT3 renal cell carcinoma-can the 2002 primary tumor classification be improved? J Urol. 2005; 173: 716719.