Differences in prognostic factors and survival among white and Asian men with prostate cancer, California, 1995–2004


  • The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Health Services as part of the statewide cancer reporting program mandated by California Health and Safety Code Section 103885, the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program under contract N01-PC-35136 awarded to the Northern California Cancer Center; contract N01-PC-35139 awarded to the University of Southern California; and contract N02-PC-15105 awarded to the Public Health Institute; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries, under agreement U55/CCR921930-02 awarded to the Public Health Institute.

  • The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and endorsement by the State of California, Department of Health Services, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their contractors and subcontractors is not intended nor should be inferred.



There are very limited data concerning survival from prostate cancer among Asian subgroups living in the U.S., a large proportion of whom reside in California. There do not appear to be any published data on prostate cancer survival for the more recently immigrated Asian subgroups (Korean, South Asian [SA], and Vietnamese).


A study of prognostic factors and survival from prostate cancer was conducted in non-Hispanic whites and 6 Asian subgroups (Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, SA, and Vietnamese), using data from all men in California diagnosed with incident prostate cancer during 1995–2004 and followed through 2004 (n = 116,916). Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models.


Whites and Asians demonstrated significant racial differences in all prognostic factors: age, summary stage, primary treatment, histologic grade, socioeconomic status, and year of diagnosis. Every Asian subgroup had a risk factor profile that put them at a survival disadvantage compared with whites. Overall, the 10-year risk of death from prostate cancer was 11.9%. However, in unadjusted analyses Japanese men had significantly better survival than whites; Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese men had statistically equal survival; and SA men had significantly lower survival. On multivariate analyses adjusting for all prognostic factors, all subgroups except SA and Vietnamese men had significantly better survival than whites; the latter 2 groups had statistically equal survival.


Traditional prognostic factors for survival from prostate cancer do not explain why most Asian men have better survival compared with whites, but they do explain the poorer survival of SA men compared with whites. Cancer 2007. © 2007 American Cancer Society.