• 1
    American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures. Available at URL: Accessed December 15, 2006.
  • 2
    Fernandez-del Castillo C, Rattner DW, Warshaw AL. Standards for pancreatic resection in the 1990s. Arch Surg. 1995; 130: 295299; discussion 299–300.
  • 3
    Richter A, Niedergethmann M, Sturm JW, Lorenz D, Post S, Trede M. Long-term results of partial pancreaticoduodenectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head: 25-year experience. World J Surg. 2003; 27: 324329.
  • 4
    Schmidt CM, Powell ES, Yiannoutsos CT, et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy: a 20-year experience in 516 patients. Arch Surg. 2004; 139: 718725; discussion 725–717.
  • 5
    Sohn TA, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, et al. Resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas-616 patients: results, outcomes, and prognostic indicators. J Gastrointest Surg. 2000; 4: 567579.
  • 6
    Conlon KC, Klimstra DS, Brennan MF. Long-term survival after curative resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Clinicopathologic analysis of 5-year survivors. Ann Surg. 1996; 223: 273279.
  • 7
    Cameron JL, Pitt HA, Yeo CJ, Lillemoe KD, Kaufman HS, Coleman J. One hundred and forty-five consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies without mortality. Ann Surg. 1993; 217: 430435; discussion 435–438.
  • 8
    Cameron JL, Riall TS, Coleman J, Belcher KA. One thousand consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies. Ann Surg. 2006; 244: 1015.
  • 9
    Lieberman MD, Kilburn H, Lindsey M, Brennan MF. Relationship of perioperative deaths to hospital volume among patients undergoing pancreatic resection for malignancy. Ann Surg. 1995; 222: 638645.
  • 10
    Trede M, Schwall G, Saeger HD. Survival after pancreatoduodenectomy. 118 consecutive resections without an operative mortality. Ann Surg. 1990; 211: 447458.
  • 11
    Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. Further evidence of effective adjuvant combined radiation and chemotherapy following curative resection of pancreatic cancer. Cancer. 1987; 59: 20062010.
  • 12
    Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Friess H, et al. A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 12001210.
  • 13
    Yeo CJ, Abrams RA, Grochow LB, et al. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: postoperative adjuvant chemoradiation improves survival. A prospective, single-institution experience. Ann Surg. 1997; 225: 621633; discussion 633–626.
  • 14
    Picozzi VJ, Kozarek RA, Traverso LW. Interferon-based adjuvant chemoradiation therapy after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg. 2003; 185: 476480.
  • 15
    Winchester DP, Stewart AK, Bura C, Jones RS. The National Cancer Data Base: a clinical surveillance and quality improvement tool. J Surg Oncol. 2004; 85: 13.
  • 16
    Fritz A, Percy C, Jack A, Shanmugaratnam K, Sobin L, Parkin D, Whelan S. International Classification of Disease for Oncology. 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.
  • 17
    Phillips JL, Stewart AK. Facility Oncology Registry Data Standards. Chicago: Commission on Cancer; 2004.
  • 18
    Johnson CH, Richards L. Standards of the Commission on Cancer. Volume II: Registry Operations and Data Standards. Chicago: Commission on Cancer; 1998.
  • 19
    Commission on Cancer. Approvals Categories. Available at URL: Accessed December 17, 2006.
  • 20
    National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). Available at URL: Accessed December 15, 1007.
  • 21
    United States Department of Agriculture. Urban-Rural Continuum Codes. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture; 2003.
  • 22
    Kaplan E, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457481.
  • 23
    Cox D. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc. 1972; 34: 187220.
  • 24
    Sener SF, Fremgen A, Menck HR, Winchester DP. Pancreatic cancer: a report of treatment and survival trends for 100,313 patients diagnosed from 1985–1995, using the National Cancer Database. J Am Coll Surg. 1999; 189: 17.
  • 25
    Baxter NN, Whitson BA, Tuttle TM. Trends in the treatment and outcome of pancreatic cancer in the United States. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007; 14: 13201326.
  • 26
    Riall TS, Nealon WH, Goodwin JS, et al. Pancreatic cancer in the general population: improvements in survival over the last decade. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006; 10: 12121223; discussion 1223–1214.
  • 27
    Oettle H, Post S, Neuhaus P, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine vs observation in patients undergoing curative-intent resection of pancreatic cancer: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007; 297: 267277.
  • 28
    Begg CB, Cramer LD, Hoskins WJ, Brennan MF. Impact of hospital volume on operative mortality for major cancer surgery. JAMA. 1998; 280: 17471751.
  • 29
    Fong Y, Gonen M, Rubin D, Radzyner M, Brennan MF. Long-term survival is superior after resection for cancer in high-volume centers. Ann Surg. 2005; 242: 540544; discussion 544–547.
  • 30
    Gordon TA, Bowman HM, Tielsch JM, Bass EB, Burleyson GP, Cameron JL. Statewide regionalization of pancreaticoduodenectomy and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Ann Surg. 1998; 228: 7178.
  • 31
    Ho V, Heslin MJ. Effect of hospital volume and experience on in-hospital mortality for pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg. 2003; 237: 509514.
  • 32
    Sosa JA, Bowman HM, Gordon TA, et al. Importance of hospital volume in the overall management of pancreatic cancer. Ann Surg. 1998; 228: 429438.
  • 33
    Brennan MF. Adjuvant therapy following resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2004; 13: 555566, vii.
  • 34
    Lim JE, Chien MW, Earle CC. Prognostic factors following curative resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a population-based, linked database analysis of 396 patients. Ann Surg. 2003; 237: 7485.
  • 35
    Ayanian JZ, Zaslavsky AM, Fuchs CS, et al. Use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for colorectal cancer in a population-based cohort. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 12931300.
  • 36
    Bickell NA, Chassin MR. Determining the quality of breast cancer care: do tumor registries measure up? Ann Intern Med. 2000; 132: 705710.
  • 37
    Cress RD, Zaslavsky AM, West DW, Wolf RE, Felter MC, Ayanian JZ. Completeness of information on adjuvant therapies for colorectal cancer in population-based cancer registries. Med Care. 2003; 41: 10061012.
  • 38
    Malin JL, Kahn KL, Adams J, Kwan L, Laouri M, Ganz PA. Validity of cancer registry data for measuring the quality of breast cancer care. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002; 94: 835844.
  • 39
    Du W, Touchette D, Vaitkevicius VK, Peters WP, Shields AF. Cost analysis of pancreatic carcinoma treatment. Cancer. 2000; 89: 19171924.
  • 40
    Virnig BA, Warren JL, Cooper GS, Klabunde CN, Schussler N, Freeman J. Studying radiation therapy using SEER-Medicare-linked data. Med Care. 2002; 40( 8 suppl): IV-4954.
  • 41
    Chassin MR. Achieving and sustaining improved quality: lessons from New York State and cardiac surgery. Health Aff (Millwood). 2002; 21: 4051.
  • 42
    Iezzoni L. Risk Adjustment for Measuring Healthcare Outcomes. Volume 3. Chicago: Health Administration Press; 2003.
  • 43
    Khuri SF, Daley J, Henderson W, et al. The Department of Veterans Affairs' NSQIP: the first national, validated, outcome-based, risk-adjusted, and peer-controlled program for the measurement and enhancement of the quality of surgical care. National VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Ann Surg. 1998; 228: 491507.
  • 44
    Birkmeyer JD, Warshaw AL, Finlayson SR, Grove MR, Tosteson AN. Relationship between hospital volume and late survival after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Surgery. 1999; 126: 178183.
  • 45
    Birkmeyer NJ, Goodney PP, Stukel TA, Hillner BE, Birkmeyer JD. Do cancer centers designated by the National Cancer Institute have better surgical outcomes? Cancer. 2005; 103: 435441.
  • 46
    Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987; 40: 373383.
  • 47
    Finlayson EV, Goodney PP, Birkmeyer JD. Hospital volume and operative mortality in cancer surgery: a national study. Arch Surg. 2003; 138: 721725; discussion 726.