• 1
    Tannock IF, de Wit R, Berry WR, et al. Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 15021512.
  • 2
    Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MHA, et al. Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 15131520.
  • 3
    Oncology, Inc. OncoTrack [database online], updated June 2005. Available at URL: Accessed September 5, 2007.
  • 4
    Opgenorth TJ, Adler AL, Caldazilla SV, et al. Pharmacological characterization of A-127722: an orally active and highly potent ETA-selective receptor antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996; 276: 473481.
  • 5
    Nelson JB. Endothelin inhibition: novel therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2003; 170: S65S68.
  • 6
    Nelson JB, Hedican SP, George DJ, et al. Identification of endothelin-1 in the pathophysiology of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Nat Med. 1995; 1: 944949.
  • 7
    Nelson JB, Chan-Tack K, Hedican SP, et al. Endothelin-1 production and decreased endothelin B receptor expression in advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1996; 56: 663668.
  • 8
    Gohji K, Kitazawa S, Tamada H, Katsuoka Y, Nakajima M. Expression of endothelin receptor A associated with prostate cancer progression. J Urol. 2001; 165: 10331036.
  • 9
    Logothetis CJ, Lin SH. Osteoblasts in prostate cancer metastasis to bone. Nat Rev Cancer. 2005; 5: 2128.
  • 10
    Takuwa Y, Masaki T, Yamashita K. The effects of endothelin family peptides on cultured osteoblast cells from rat calvariae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990; 170: 9981005.
  • 11
    Nelson JB, Nguyen SH, Wu-Wong JR, et al. New bone formation in an osteoblastic tumor model is increased by endothelin-1 overexpression and decreased by endothelin A receptor blockade. Urology. 1999; 53: 10631069.
  • 12
    Guise TA, Yin JJ, Mohammad KS. Role of endothelin-1 in osteoblastic bone metastases. Cancer. 2003; 97 ( suppl 3): 779784.
  • 13
    Suzuki A, Shinoda J, Watanabe-Tomita Y, Ozaki N, Oiso Y, Kozawa O. ETA receptor mediates the signaling of endothelin-1 in osteoblast-like cells. Bone. 1997; 21: 143146.
  • 14
    Yin JJ, Mohammad KS, Kakonen SM, et al. A causal role for endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of osteoblastic bone metastases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100: 1095410959.
  • 15
    Mundy GR. Endothelin-1 and osteoblastic metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003; 100: 1058810589.
  • 16
    Fizazi K, Yang J, Peleg S, et al. Prostate cancer cells-osteoblast interaction shifts expression of growth/survival-related genes in prostate cancer and reduces expression of osteoprotegerin in osteoblasts. Clin Cancer Res. 2003; 9: 25872597.
  • 17
    LeRoy BE, Sellars RS, Rosol TJ. Canine prostate stimulates osteoblast function using the endothelin receptors. Prostate. 2004; 59: 148156.
  • 18
    Dutta S, Samara E, Lam W, Granneman GR, Leese PT, Padley RJ. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of atrasentan, an endothelin-A receptor antagonist. Clin Drug Invest. 2001; 21: 129136.
  • 19
    Carducci M, Nelson JB, Bowling MK, et al. Atrasentan (ABT-627), an endothelin-receptor antagonist for refractory adenocarcinomas: safety and pharmacokinetics. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 21712180.
  • 20
    Carducci MA, Padley RJ, Breul J, et al. Effect of endothelin-A receptor blockade with atrasentan on tumor progression in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a randomized, phase II, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 679689.
  • 21
    Nelson JB, Nabulsi AA, Vogelzang NJ, et al. Suppression of prostate-cancer induced bone remodeling by the endothelin receptor A antagonists, atrasentan. J Urol. 2003; 169: 11431149.
  • 22
    Bubley G, Carducci M, Dahut W, et al. Eligibility and response guidelines for phase II clinical trials in androgen-independent prostate cancer: recommendations from the Prostate-Specific Antigen Working Group. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 34613467.
  • 23
    Imbriaco M, Larson SM, Yeung HW, et al. A new parameter for measuring metastatic bone involvement by prostate cancer: the Bone Scan Index. Clin Cancer Res. 1998; 4: 17651772.
  • 24
    Fleming TR, Harrington DP. Counting Processes and Survival Analysis. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1991: 255271.
  • 25
    Halabi S, Small EJ, Kantoff PW, et al. Prognostic model for predicting survival in men with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 12321237.
  • 26
    Konstam MA, DeNofrio D. Endothelin expression and the progression of heart failure: exemplifying the vagaries of therapeutic development. Circulation. 2004; 109: 143145.
  • 27
    Mylona P, Cleland JGF. Update of REACH-1 and MERIT-HF clinical trials in heart failure. Eur J Heart Failure. 1999; 1: 197200.
  • 28
    Scher HI, Halabi S, Tannock I, et al. The Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group (PCCTWG) consensus for phase II trials in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Proceedings of the 2007 ASCO Prostate Cancer Symposium, Orlando, Florida, February 22–24, 2007. Abstract 221.
  • 29
    Jorgensen T, Kanagasingham Y, Kaalhus O, et al. Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic (stage D2) prostate cancer: experience from the Scandinavian Prostatic Caner Group Study-2. J Urol. 1997; 158: 164170.
  • 30
    Sylvester RJ, Denis L, de Voogt H; for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Genito-Urinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group. The importance of prognostic factors in the interpretation of 2 EORTC metastatic prostate cancer trials. Eur Urol. 1998; 33: 34143.
  • 31
    Vacca F, Bagnato A, Catt KJ, Tecce R. Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in endothelin-1-induced mitogenic signaling in human ovarian carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2000; 60: 53105317.
  • 32
    Wu-Wong JR, Chiou WJ, Wang J. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases are involved in the antiapoptotic effect of endothelin-1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000; 293: 514521.
  • 33
    Rosano L, Salani D, Di Castro V, Spinella F, Natali PG, Bagnato A. Endothelin-1 promotes proteolytic activity of ovarian carcinoma. Clin Sci. 2002; 103 ( suppl 48): 306S309S.
  • 34
    Del Bufalo D, Di Castro V, Biroccio A, et al. Endothelin-1 protects ovarian carcinoma cells against paclitaxel-induced apoptosis: requirement for Akt activation. Mol Pharmacol. 2002; 61: 524532.
  • 35
    Grant K, Loizidou M, Taylor I. Endothelin-I: a multifunctional molecule in cancer. Br J Cancer. 2003; 88: 163166.