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Article first published online: 15 OCT 2007
Copyright © 2007 American Cancer Society
Volume 110, Issue 10, pages 2119–2152, 15 November 2007
How to Cite
Espey, D. K., Wu, X.-C., Swan, J., Wiggins, C., Jim, M. A., Ward, E., Wingo, P. A., Howe, H. L., Ries, L. A. G., Miller, B. A., Jemal, A., Ahmed, F., Cobb, N., Kaur, J. S. and Edwards, B. K. (2007), Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2004, featuring cancer in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Cancer, 110: 2119–2152. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23044
This article is a U.S. government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
This article was originally published online on October 15, 2007, and it is presented here with the following modifications: Dr. Wu's degree appears correctly above, and some data was realigned in the tables to improve the readability of the data being presented. The changes do not affect the core data or the conclusions of the article in any way. The publisher apologizes for this oversight and any confusion that may have ensued.
Fax: (505) 248-4393.
Phyllis A. Wingo was under contract with the Indian Health Service for a portion of her work on this manuscript.
- Issue published online: 2 NOV 2007
- Article first published online: 15 OCT 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 21 AUG 2007
- Manuscript Revised: 20 AUG 2007
- Manuscript Received: 13 AUG 2007
- American Indian;
- Alaska Native;
- National Program of Cancer Registries;
- End Results;
- American Cancer Society;
- North American Association of Central Cancer Registries;
- health disparity
The American Cancer Society, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate annually to provide updated information on cancer occurrence and trends in the U.S. The 2007 report features a comprehensive compilation of cancer information for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN).
Cancer incidence data were available for up to 82% of the U.S. population. Cancer deaths were available for the entire U.S. population. Long-term (1975 through 2004) and fixed-interval (1995 through 2004) incidence and mortality trends were evaluated by annual percent change using regression analyses (2-sided P < .05). Cancer screening, risk factors, socioeconomic characteristics, incidence data, and stage were compiled for non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and AI/AN across 6 regions of the U.S.
Overall cancer death rates decreased by 2.1% per year from 2002 through 2004, nearly twice the annual decrease of 1.1% per year from 1993 through 2002. Among men and women, death rates declined for most cancers. Among women, lung cancer incidence rates no longer were increasing and death rates, although they still were increasing slightly, were increasing at a much slower rate than in the past. Breast cancer incidence rates in women decreased 3.5% per year from 2001 to 2004, the first decrease observed in 20 years. Colorectal cancer incidence and death rates and prostate cancer death rates declined, with colorectal cancer death rates dropping more sharply from 2002 through 2004. Overall, rates for AI/AN were lower than for NHW from 1999 through 2004 for most cancers, but they were higher for cancers of the stomach, liver, cervix, kidney, and gallbladder. Regional analyses, however, revealed high rates for AI/AN in the Northern and Southern Plains and Alaska. For cancers of the breast, colon and rectum, prostate, and cervix, AI/AN were less likely than NHW to be diagnosed at localized stages.
For all races/ethnicities combined in the U.S., favorable trends in incidence and mortality were noted for lung and colorectal cancer in men and women and for breast cancer in women. For the AI/AN population, lower overall cancer incidence and death rates obscured important variations by geographic regions and less favorable healthcare access and socioeconomic status. Enhanced tobacco control and cancer screening, especially in the Northern and Southern Plains and Alaska, emerged as clear priorities. Cancer 2007;110:2119–52. Published 2007 by the American Cancer Society.