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Keywords:

  • uterine leiomyosarcoma;
  • lymph node dissection;
  • ovarian preservation;
  • prognostic factors;
  • disease-specific survival

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The objectives of the current study were to determine the prognostic factors associated with disease-specific survival (DSS) and to analyze the role of lymphadenectomy (LND) and oophorectomy in the management of uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS).

METHODS

Data were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1988–2003). Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for analyses.

RESULTS

The median age of the 1396 patients was 52 years. There were 951 patients (68.1%) with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I disease, 43 patients (3.1%) with stage II disease, 99 patients (7.1%) with stage III disease, and 303 patients (21.7%) with stage IV disease. Distribution by tumor grade included 87 patients with grade 1 tumors, 208 with grade 2, and 509 patients with grade 3 tumors. The 5-year DSS rates for patients with stage I, II, III, and IV disease were 75.8%, 60.1%, 44.9%, and 28.7%, respectively. Lymph node metastases were identified in 23 of 348 patients (6.6%) who underwent LND. The 5-year DSS rate was 26% in patients who had positive lymph nodes compared with 64.2% in patients who had negative lymph nodes (P < .001). Of 341 patients aged <50 years with stage I or II disease, 240 (70.4%) underwent oophorectomy. There was no difference in 5-year DSS based on oophorectomy. On multivariate analysis, older age at diagnosis, more recent year of diagnosis, African-American race, higher tumor grade, higher stage of disease, and lack of primary surgical treatment all were associated significantly with worse survival.

CONCLUSIONS

Independent predictors of DSS in patients with uterine LMS included age, race, stage, grade, and primary surgery. Oophorectomy was not found to have an independent impact on survival. Cancer 2008. © 2008 American Cancer Society.