• 1
    SobinLH,WhittekindC, eds. TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors,6th ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2002.
  • 2
    Fenoglio CM,Pascal RR. Colorectal adenomas and cancer—pathologic relationships. Cancer. 1982; 50: 26012608.
  • 3
    Morson BC,Whiteway JE,Jones EA,Macrae FA,Williams CB. Histopathology and prognosis of malignant colorectal polyps treated by endoscopic polypectomy. Gut. 1984; 25: 437444.
  • 4
    Okabe S,Shia J,Nash G, et al. Lymph node metastasis in T1 adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum. J Gastrointest Surg. 2004; 8: 10321040.
  • 5
    Kawamura YJ,Sakuragi M,Togashi K,Okada M,Nagai H,Konishi F. Distribution of lymph node metastasis in T1 sigmoid colon carcinoma: should we ligate the inferior mesenteric artery? Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005; 40: 858861.
  • 6
    Banerji S,Ni J,Wang SX, et al. LYVE-1, a new homologue of the CD44 glycoprotein, is a lymph-specific receptor for hyaluronan. J Cell Biol. 1999; 22: 789801.
  • 7
    Kahn HJ,Bailey D,Marks A. Monoclonal antibody D2-40, a new marker of lymphatic endothelium, reacts with Kaposi's sarcoma and a subset of angiosarcomas. Mod Pathol. 2002; 15: 434440.
  • 8
    Akishima Y,Ito K,Zhang L, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of human small lymphatic vessels under normal and pathological conditions using the LYVE-1 antibody. Virchows Arch. 2004; 444: 153157.
  • 9
    Fujimoto A,Ishikawa Y,Akishima-Fukasawa Y, et al. Significance of lymphatic invasion on regional lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer using LYVE-1 immunohistochemical analysis. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007; 127: 8288.
  • 10
    Delektorskaya VV,Perevoshehikov AG,Golovkov DA,Kushlinskii NE. Expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and CD-44v6 cell adhesion molecules in primary tumors and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005; 139: 706710.
  • 11
    de Oliveira SS,de Oliveira IM,De Souza W,Morgado-Diaz JA. Claudins upregulation in human colorectal cancer. FEBS Lett. 2005; 579: 61796185.
  • 12
    Dhawan P,Singh AB,Deane NG, et al. Claudin-1 regulates cellular transformation and metastatic behavior in colon cancer. J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 17651776.
  • 13
    Resnick MB,Gavilanez M,Newton E, et al. Claudin expression in gastric adenocarcinomas: a tissue microarray study with prognostic correlation. Hum Pathol. 2005; 36: 886892.
  • 14
    Shimoda T,Ikegami M,Fujisaki J,Matsui T,Aizawa S,Ishikawa E. Early colorectal carcinoma with special reference to its development de novo. Cancer. 1989; 64: 11381146.
  • 15
    Hamilton SR,Aaltonen LA. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Digestive System. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2000.
  • 16
    Morodomi T,Isomoto H,Shirouzu K,Kakegawa K,Irie K,Morimatsu M. An index for estimating the probability of lymph node metastasis in rectal cancers—lymph node metastasis and the histopathology of activity invasive regions of cancer. Cancer. 1989; 63: 539543.
  • 17
    Haggitt RC,Glotzbach RE,Soffer EE, et al. Prognostic factors on colorectal carcinomas arising in adenomas: implications for lesions removed by endoscopic polypectomy. Gastroenterology. 1985; 89: 328336.
  • 18
    Minamoto T,Mai M,Ogino T, et al. Early invasive colorectal carcinomas metastatic to the lymph node with attention to their nonpolypoid development. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993; 88: 10351039.
  • 19
    Ueno H,Mochizuki H,Hashiguchi Y, et al. Risk factors for an adverse outcome in early invasive colorectal carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127: 385394.
  • 20
    Sakuragi M,Togashi K,Konishi F, et al. Predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in T1 stage colorectal carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003; 46: 16261632.
  • 21
    Bayer S,Saxena R,Emir B,Salem RR. Venous invasion may predict lymph node metastasis in early resected cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2002; 28: 413417.
  • 22
    Gannon B. The vasculature and lymphatic drainage. In: WhiteheaedR, ed. Gastrointestinal and Oesophageal Pathology. London, United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone; 1989; 117160.
  • 23
    Ono S,Sakamoto M,Ino Y, et al. Cancer cell morphology at the invasive front and expression of cell adhesion-related carbohydrate in the primary lesion of patients with colorectal carcinoma with liver metastasis. Cancer. 1996; 78: 11791186.
  • 24
    Suzuki A,Nagasako K,Fujimori T,Ono Y,Suzuki S,Hayashi N. Clinicopathological evaluation of the trend toward histologically poor differentiation with submucosal invasion in superficial early colorectal adenocarcinomas. J Gastroenterol. 2000; 35: 832839.
  • 25
    Hase K,Shatney C,Johnson D,Trollope M,Vierra M. Prognostic value of tumor “budding” in patients with colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993; 36: 627635.
  • 26
    Okuyama T,Oya M,Ishikawa H. Budding as a risk factor for lymph node metastasis in pT1 or pT2 well-differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002; 45: 628634.
  • 27
    Meguerditchian AN,Bairati I,Lagace R,Harel F,Kibrite A. Prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion in surgically cured rectal carcinoma. Am J Surg. 2005; 189: 707713.
  • 28
    Nivatrongs S,Rojanasakul A,Reiman HM, et al. The risk of lymph node metastasis in colorectal polyps with invasive adenocarcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum. 1991; 34: 323328.
  • 29
    Walgenbach-Bruenagel G,Tolba RH,Varnai AD,Bollmann M,Hirner A,Walgenbach KJ. Detection of lymphatic invasion in early stage primary colorectal cancer with the monoclonal antibody D2-40. Eur Surg Res. 2006; 38: 438444.
  • 30
    Omachi T,Kawai Y,Mizuno R, et al. Immunohistochemical demonstration of proliferating lymphatic vessels in colorectal carcinoma and its clinicopathological significance. Cancer Lett. 2007; 246: 167172.
  • 31
    Bhalla R,Siddiqui MT,Mandich D, et al. Diagnostic utility of D2-40 and podoplanin in effusion cell blocks. Diagn Cytopathol. 2007; 35: 342347.
  • 32
    Marks A,Sutherland DR,Bailey D, et al. Characterization and distribution of an oncofetal antigen (M2A antigen) expressed on testicular germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer. 1999; 80: 569578.
  • 33
    Soh S,Ishii T,Sato E,Akishima Y,Ito K,Baba S. Topographic distribution of lymphatic vessels in the normal human prostate. Prostate. 2005; 63: 330335.
  • 34
    Birchmeier W,Weidner KM,Hulsken J,Behrens J. Molecular mechanisms leading to cell junction (cadherin) deficiency in invasive carcinomas. Semin Cancer Biol. 1993; 4: 231239.
  • 35
    Ponta H,Hoffman M,Herrlich P. Recent advances in the genetics of metastasis. Eur J Cancer. 1994; 13: 19952001.
  • 36
    Tanaka N,Odajima T,Ogi K,Ikeda T,Satoh M. Expression of E-cadherin, α-catenin, and β-catenin in the process of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2003; 89: 557563.
  • 37
    Kase S,Sugio K,Yamazaki K,Okamoto T,Yano T,Sugimachi K. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in human non-small cell lung cancer and the clinical significance. Clin Cancer Res. 2000; 6: 47894796.
  • 38
    Michl P,Barth C,Buchholz M, et al. Claudin-4 expression decreases invasiveness and metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2003; 63: 62656227.
  • 39
    Soini Y,Tommola S,Helin H,Martikainen P. Claudins 1, 3, 4, and 5 in gastric carcinoma, loss of claudin expression associates with the diffuse subtype. Virchows Arch. 2006; 448: 5258.
  • 40
    Agarwal R,D'Souza T,Morin PJ. Claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression in ovarian epithelial cells enhances invasion and is associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Cancer Res. 2005; 65: 73787385.
  • 41
    Pan XY,Wang B,Che YC,Weng ZP,Dai HY,Peng W. Expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 in normal, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial tissue. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007; 17: 233241.