• 1
    Ries LAG,Harkins D,Krapcho M, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2003. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2006.
  • 2
    American Cancer Society (2006). Cancer Facts and Figures. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2006.
  • 3
    Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database ( Incidence-SEER 9 Regions. Public-Use, November 2005 submission (1973–2003). Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch; 2006.
  • 4
    Leath CAIII,Straughn JMJr,Kirby TO,Huggins A,Partridge EE,Parham GP. Predictors of outcomes for women with cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2005; 99: 432436.
  • 5
    Brooks SE,Baquet CR,Gardner JF,Moses G,Ghosh A. Cervical cancer—the impact of clinical presentation, health and race on survival. J Assoc Acad Minor Phys. 2000; 11: 5559.
  • 6
    Morgan MA,Behbakht K,Benjamin I,Berlin M,King SA,Rubin SC. Racial differences in survival from gynecologic cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 1996; 88: 914918.
  • 7
    Eggleston KS,Coker AL,Williams M,Tortolero-Luna G,Martin JB,Tortolero SR. Cervical cancer survival by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and place of residence in Texas, 1995–2001. J Womens Health (Larchmont). 2006; 15: 941951.
  • 8
    Howell EA,Chen YT,Concato J. Differences in cervical cancer mortality among black and white women. Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 94: 509515.
  • 9
    Chen F,Trapido EJ,Davis K. Differences in stage at presentation of breast and gynecologic cancers among whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Cancer. 1994; 73: 28382842.
  • 10
    del Carmen MG,Montz FJ,Bristow RE,Bovicelli A,Cornelison T,Trimble E. Ethnic differences in patterns of care of stage 1A(1) and stage 1A(2) cervical cancer: a SEER database study. Gynecol Oncol. 1999; 75: 113117.
  • 11
    Mitchell JB,McCormack LA. Time trends in late-stage diagnosis of cervical cancer. Differences by race/ethnicity and income. Med Care. 1997; 35: 12201224.
  • 12
    Mandelblatt J,Andrews H,Kerner J,Zauber A,Burnett W. Determinants of late stage diagnosis of breast and cervical cancer: the impact of age, race, social class, and hospital type. Am J Public Health. 1991; 81: 646649.
  • 13
    Jones WB,Shingleton HM,Russell A, et al. Patterns of care for invasive cervical cancer. Results of a national survey of 1984 and 1990. Cancer. 1995; 76( 10 suppl): 19341947.
  • 14
    Mundt AJ,Connell PP,Campbell T,Hwang JH,Rotmensch J,Waggoner S. Race and clinical outcome in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiation therapy. Gynecol Oncol. 1998; 71: 151158.
  • 15
    Katz A,Eifel PJ,Moughan J,Owen JB,Mahon I,Hanks GE. Socioeconomic characteristics of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiotherapy in the 1992 to 1994 Patterns of Care study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000; 47: 443450.
  • 16
    Coker AL,Du XL,Fang S,Eggleston KS. Socioeconomic status and cervical cancer survival among older women: findings from the SEER-Medicare linked data cohorts. Gynecol Oncol. 2006; 102: 278284.
  • 17
    Bradley CJ,Given CW,Roberts C. Health care disparities and cervical cancer. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94: 20982103.
  • 18
    Greenwald HP,Polissar NL,Dayal HH. Race, socioeconomic status and survival in three female cancers. Ethn Health. 1996; 1: 6575.
  • 19
    Murphy M,Goldblatt P,Thornton-Jones H,Silcocks P. Survival among women with cancer of the uterine cervix: influence of marital status and social class. J Epidemiol Commun Health. 1990; 44: 293296.
  • 20
    Samelson EJ,Speers MA,Ferguson R,Bennett C. Racial differences in cervical cancer mortality in Chicago. Am J Public Health. 1994; 84: 10071009.
  • 21
    Shelton D,Paturzo D,Flannery J,Gregorio D. Race, stage of disease, and survival with cervical cancer. Ethn Dis. 1992; 2: 4754.
  • 22
    Singh GK,Miller BA,Hankey BF,Edwards BK. Persistent area socioeconomic disparities in U.S. incidence of cervical cancer, mortality, stage, and survival, 1975–2000. Cancer. 2004; 101: 10511057.
  • 23
    Farley JH,Hines JF,Taylor RR, et al. Equal care ensures equal survival for African-American women with cervical carcinoma. Cancer. 2001; 91: 869873.
  • 24
    Krieger N,Chen JT,Waterman PD,Soobader MJ,Subramanian SV,Carson R. Geocoding and monitoring of US socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: does the choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter? The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Epidemiol. 2002; 156: 471482.
  • 25
    Krieger N,Waterman P,Chen JT,Soobader MJ,Subramanian SV,Carson R. Zip code caveat: bias due to spatiotemporal mismatches between zip codes and US Census-defined geographic areas—the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health. 2002; 92: 11001102.
  • 26
    Krieger N,Chen JT,Waterman PD,Rehkopf DH,Subramanian SV. Race/ethnicity, gender, and monitoring socioeconomic gradients in health: a comparison of area-based socioeconomic measures—the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 16551671.
  • 27
    Krieger N,Quesenberry CJr,Peng T, et al. Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer among Asian, black, Hispanic, and white residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1988–92 (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1999; 10: 525537.
  • 28
    World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1990.
  • 29
    Weir HK,Thun MJ,Hankey BF, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2000, featuring the uses of surveillance data for cancer prevention and control. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95: 12761299.
  • 30
    Devita VT. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
  • 31
    United States Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing Summary Tape File 3, Technical Documentation, 1991. Washington DC: US Census Bureau; 1990.
  • 32
    Patel DA,Barnholtz-Sloan JS,Patel MK,Malone JMJr,Chuba PJ,Schwartz K. A population-based study of racial and ethnic differences in survival among women with invasive cervical cancer: analysis of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Gynecol Oncol. 2005; 97: 550558.
  • 33
    Grigsby PW,Hall-Daniels L,Baker S,Perez CA. Comparison of clinical outcome in black and white women treated with radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2000; 79: 357361.
  • 34
    Thoms WW,Unger ER,Johnson PR, et al. Cervical cancer survival in a high risk urban population. Cancer. 1995; 76: 25182523.
  • 35
    Ragland KE,Selvin S,Merrill DW. Black-white differences in stage-specific cancer survival: analysis of seven selected sites. Am J Epidemiol. 1991; 133: 672682.
  • 36
    Brewster WR,DiSaia PJ,Monk BJ,Ziogas A,Yamada SD,Anton-Culver H. Young age as a prognostic factor in cervical cancer: results of a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 180(6 pt 1): 14641467.
  • 37
    Bolli JA,Maners A. Age as a prognostic factor in cancer of the cervix: the UAMS experience. J Ark Med Soc. 1992; 89: 7983.
  • 38
    Kosary CL. FIGO stage, histology, histologic grade, age and race as prognostic factors in determining survival for cancers of the female gynecological system: an analysis of 1973–1987 SEER cases of cancers of the endometrium, cervix, ovary, vulva, and vagina. Semin Surg Oncol. 1994; 10: 3146.
  • 39
    Brun JL,Stoven-Camou D,Trouette R,Lopez M,Chene G,Hocke C. Survival and prognosis of women with invasive cervical cancer according to age. Gynecol Oncol. 2003; 91: 395401.
  • 40
    Meanwell CA,Kelly KA,Wilson S, et al. Young age as a prognostic factor in cervical cancer: analysis of population based data from 10,022 cases. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988; 296: 386391.
  • 41
    Morrow CP,Curtin JP. Synopsis of gynecologic oncology. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1998.
  • 42
    McCusker ME,Cote TR,Clegg LX,Tavassoli FJ. Endocrine tumors of the uterine cervix: incidence, demographics, and survival with comparison to squamous cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2003; 88: 333339.
  • 43
    Patel DA,Knowles A,Schwartz AG,Schwartz K. Evaluation of African-American and white racial classification in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Ethn Dis. 2005; 15: 713719.
  • 44
    Chow WH,Devesa SS. Underreporting and misclassification of urinary tract cancer cases on death certificates. Epidemiology. 1996; 7: 517520.
  • 45
    Weinstock MA,Reynes JF. Validation of cause-of-death certification for outpatient cancers: the contrasting cases of melanoma and mycosis fungoides. Am J Epidemiol. 1998; 148: 11841186.
  • 46
    Winter WEIII,Maxwell GL,Tian C, et al. Association of hemoglobin level with survival in cervical carcinoma patients treated with concurrent cisplatin and radiotherapy: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2004; 94: 495501.