• 1
    McLaughlin JR,Dryer D,Mao Y, et al. Canadian Cancer Statistics 2006. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Cancer Society/National Cancer Institute of Canada, 2006.
  • 2
    Amling CL. Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. Curr Probl Cancer 2001; 25: 219278.
  • 3
    Lamm DL. Carcinoma in situ. Urol Clin North Am. 1992; 19: 499508.
  • 4
    Rigaud J,Karam G,Braud G,Glemain P,Buzelin JM,Bouchot O. [T1 bladder tumors: value of a second endoscopic resection.] Prog Urol. 2002; 12: 2730.
  • 5
    Herr HW,Donat SM. A re-staging transurethral resection predicts early progression of superficial bladder cancer. BJU Int. 2006; 97: 11941198.
  • 6
    Tolley DA,Parmar MK,Grigor KM, et al. The effect of intravesical mitomycin C on recurrence of newly diagnosed superficial bladder cancer: a further report with 7 years of follow up. J Urol. 1996; 155: 12331238.
  • 7
    Altay B,Girgin C,Kefi A,Cikili N. The best management of superficial bladder tumours: comparing TUR alone versus TUR combined with intravesical chemotherapy modalities? [In Process Citation.] Int Urol Nephrol. 2000; 32: 5358.
  • 8
    Lamm DL,Blumenstein BA,Crawford ED, et al. A randomized trial of intravesical doxorubicin and immunotherapy with bacille Calmette-Guerin for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder. N Engl J Med. 1991; 325: 12051209.
  • 9
    Sylvester RJ,Van der Meijden AP,Lamm DL. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduces the risk of progression in patients with superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials. J Urol. 2002; 168: 19641970.
  • 10
    Lamm DL. BCG in perspective: advances in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 1995; 27 (suppl 1): 28.
  • 11
    Han RF,Pan JG. Can intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduce recurrence in patients with superficial bladder cancer? A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Urology. 2006; 67: 12161223.
  • 12
    Herr HW. Progression of stage T1 bladder tumors after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin. J Urol. 1991; 145: 4043.
  • 13
    Lamm DL,Blumenstein BA,Crissman JD, et al. Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy for recurrent TA, T1 and carcinoma in situ transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a randomized Southwest Oncology Group Study. J Urol. 2000; 163: 11241129.
  • 14
    Sobin LH,Fleming ID. TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors, fifth edition (1997). Union Internationale Contre le Cancer and the American Joint Committee on Cancer. Cancer. 1997; 80: 18031804.
  • 15
    Redmond C,Fisher B,Wieand HS. The methodologic dilemma in retrospectively correlating the amount of chemotherapy received in adjuvant therapy protocols with disease-free survival. Cancer Treat Rep. 1983; 67: 519526.
  • 16
    Collett D. Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research, 2nd ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 2003.
  • 17
    Andius P,Holmang S. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy in stage Ta/T1 bladder cancer: prognostic factors for time to recurrence and progression. BJU Int. 2004; 93: 980984.
  • 18
    Van der Meijden AP,Sylvester RJ,Oosterlinck W,Hoeltl W,Bono AV. Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin for Ta T1 bladder tumors is not associated with increased toxicity: results from a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genito-Urinary Group Phase III Trial. Eur Urol. 2003; 44: 429434.
  • 19
    Saint F,Irani J,Patard JJ, et al. Tolerability of bacille Calmette-Guerin maintenance therapy for superficial bladder cancer. Urology. 2001; 57: 883888.