Examining the association between socioeconomic status and potential human papillomavirus-associated cancers§

Authors

  • Vicki B. Benard PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
    • Epidemiology and Applied Research Branch, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Mailstop K-55, NCCDPHP, CDC, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
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    • Fax: (770) 488-4639.

  • Christopher J. Johnson MPH,

    1. Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, Boise, Idaho
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  • Trevor D. Thompson BS,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Katherine B. Roland MPH,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Sue Min Lai PhD, MS, MBA,

    1. Kansas Cancer Registry, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas
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  • Vilma Cokkinides PhD,

    1. Department of Epidemiology and Research Surveillance, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Florence Tangka PhD,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Nikki A. Hawkins PhD,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Herschel Lawson MD,

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Hannah K. Weir PhD

    1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • The opinions or views expressed in this supplement are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or recommendations of the journal editors, the American Cancer Society, Wiley-Blackwell, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • §

    This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND.

This study examined the association between county-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) and the incidence rate of human papillomavirus(HPV)-associated cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.

METHODS.

The authors collected data from cancer registries for site-specific invasive cancer diagnoses between 1998 and 2003, inclusive, among adults aged >20 years at the time of diagnosis. County-level variables that included education, income, and poverty status were used as factors for socioeconomic status. Measures of rural-urban status, the percentage of the population that currently smoked, and the percentage of women who reported having ever had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test were also studied.

RESULTS.

Lower education and higher poverty were found to be associated with increased penile, cervical, and vaginal invasive cancer incidence rates. Higher education was associated with increased incidence of vulvar cancer, male and female anal cancer, and male and female oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers. Race was an independent predictor of the development of these potentially HPV-associated cancers.

CONCLUSIONS.

These findings illustrate the association between SES variables and the development of HPV-associated cancers. The findings also highlight the importance of considering SES factors when developing policies to increase access to medical care and reduce cancer disparities in the United States. Cancer 2008;113(10 suppl):2910–8. Published 2008 by the American Cancer Society.

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