In the US, federal and state behavioral surveillance systems routinely monitor self-reported sexual behavior and Papanicolaou (Pap) test use to identify high-risk populations, trends, and disparities and to guide and evaluate interventions for cervical cancer prevention and control. Clinical uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and testing necessitates the expansion of behavioral surveillance systems. Cervical disease is the main focus of HPV-related behavioral surveillance because of greater cancer incidence and mortality relative to other susceptible organs, and the availability of effective technologies for prevention and control. In the current study, a framework is presented for the types of behaviors to monitor, their conceptual and operational definitions, target populations, and evidence supporting the reliability and validity of self-report measures. An overview is also provided of 8 population-based and 2 provider-based data systems that are nationally representative and accessible for behavioral surveillance research. Ongoing surveillance at the national, state, and local level is critical for monitoring the dissemination of HPV technologies and their impact on reducing disparities in the detection of precursor lesions, incidence of invasive cancer, and mortality. Cancer 2008;113:(10 suppl):3013–30. Published 2008 by the American Cancer Society.