Years of potential life lost and productivity costs because of cancer mortality and for specific cancer sites where human papillomavirus may be a risk factor for carcinogenesis—United States, 2003 §

Authors

  • Donatus U. Ekwueme PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
    • Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS K-55, Atlanta, GA 30341;
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    • Fax: (770) 488-4639.

  • Harrell W. Chesson PhD,

    1. Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Kevin B. Zhang PhD,

    1. Macro International, Calverton, Maryland
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  • Appathurai Balamurugan MD, MPH

    1. Arkansas Central Cancer Registry/Epidemiology Branch, Arkansas Department of Health, Little Rock, Arkansas
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  • The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • We sincerely thank Drs. Scott D. Grosse and Mercy Mvundura for providing us with the updated present value of future lifetime earnings data from 2000 to 2003. In addition, we are indebted to the anonymous reviewers for many helpful comments and suggestions.

  • §

    This is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND.

Although years of potential life lost (YPLL) and mortality-related productivity costs comprise a substantial portion of the burden of cancers where human papillomavirus (HPV) may be a risk factor for carcinogenesis (called HPV-associated cancers in this report), estimates of these costs are limited. The authors estimated the mortality-related burden (in terms of YPLL and productivity costs) of HPV-associated cancers (without regard to the percentage of each of these cancers that could be attributed to HPV) and all malignant cancers in the United States in 2003.

METHODS.

The authors used 2003 national mortality data and US life tables to estimate YPLL for HPV-associated cancers and all malignant cancers. YPLL was estimated by using the life expectancy method. The human capital approach was used to estimate the value of the expected future lifetime productivity losses caused by premature deaths from HPV-associated cancers and all malignant cancers. Indirect mortality costs were estimated as the product of the number of deaths and the expected value of individuals' future earnings, including an imputed value of housekeeping services.

RESULTS.

In 2003, HPV-associated cancers accounted for 181,026 YPLL, which represented 2.4% of the estimated 7.5 million YPLL attributable to all malignant cancers in the United States. The average number of YPLL was 21.8 per HPV-associated cancer death and 16.3 per death from overall malignant cancers. Overall, HPV-associated cancers had the largest relative contribution to YPLL in women ages 30 to 34 years. The lifetime productivity cost from mortality in 2003 was $3.7 billion for HPV-associated cancer mortality and $133.5 billion for overall malignant cancer mortality.

CONCLUSIONS.

HPV-associated cancers impose a considerable burden in terms of premature deaths and productivity losses. Cancer 2008;113:(10 suppl):2936–45. Published 2008 by the American Cancer Society.

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