• 1
    Jemal A,Siegal R,Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics 2007. CA Cancer J Clin. 2007; 57: 4366.
  • 2
    Honig SF. Treatment of metastatic disease. In: Harris JR,Lippman ME,Morrow M, et al., eds. Diseases of the Breast. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 1996: 669734.
  • 3
    Cardoso F,Di LA,Lohrisch C, et al. Second and subsequent lines of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: what did we learn in the last 2 decades? Ann Oncol. 2002; 13: 197207.
  • 4
    Chung CT,Carlson RW. Goals and objectives in the management of metastatic breast cancer. Oncologist. 2003; 8: 514520.
  • 5
    Swenerton KD,Legha SS,Smith L, et al. Prognostic factors in metastatic breast cancer treated with combination chemotherapy. Cancer Res. 1979; 39: 15521562.
  • 6
    Hortobagyi GN,Smith TL,Legha SS, et al. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1983; 1: 776786.
  • 7
    Ellis M,Hayes DF,Lippman ME. Treatment of metastatic disease. In: Harris J,Lippman M,Morrow M, et al, eds. Diseases of the Breast.2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven; 2000: 749799.
  • 8
    Giordano SH,Buzdar AU,Smith TL, et al. Is breast cancer survival improving? Cancer. 2004; 100: 4452.
  • 9
    Allard WJ,Matera J,Miller MC, et al. Tumor cells circulate in the peripheral blood of all major carcinomas but not in healthy subjects or patients with nonmalignant diseases. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 68976904.
  • 10
    Cristofanilli M,Budd GT,Ellis M, et al. Circulating tumor cells predict progression free survival and overall survival in metastatic breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 781791.
  • 11
    Cristofanilli M,Broglio KR,Guarneri V, et al. Circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer: biologic staging beyond tumor burden. Clin Breast Cancer. 2007; 6: 471479.
  • 12
    Hayes DF,Cristofanilli M,Budd GT, et al. Circulating tumor cells at each follow-up time point during therapy of metastatic breast cancer patients predict progression-free and overall survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12: 42184224.
  • 13
    Budd GT,Cristofanilli M,Eillis MJ, et al. Circulating tumor cells versus imaging-predicting overall survival in metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12: 64036409.
  • 14
    Kagan M,Howard D,Bendele T, et al. A sample preparation and analysis system for identification of circulating tumor cells. J Clin Lig Assay. 2002; 25: 104110.
  • 15
    Dawood S,Broglio K,Reuben J, et al. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and prognostic stratification in metastatic breast cancer (MBC): need for a modification of the AJCC staging system? 30th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium; December 12-16, 2007; San Antonio, Tex.; Abstract 111.
  • 16
    Terstappen LW,Rao C,Gross S, et al. Peripheral blood tumor cell load reflects the clinical activity of the disease in patients with carcinoma of the breast. Int J Oncol. 2000; 17: 573578.
  • 17
    Singletary SE,Allred C,Ashley P, et al. Staging system for breast cancer: revisions for the 6th edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. Surg Clin North Am. 2003; 83: 803819.
  • 18
    The World Health Organization Histological Typing of Breast Tumors—Second Edition. The World Organization. Am J Clin Pathol. 1982; 78: 806816.
  • 19
    Black MM,Speer FD. Nuclear structure in cancer tissues. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1957; 105: 97102.
  • 20
    Bernard-Marty C,Cardoso F,Piccart MJ. Facts and controversies in systemic treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Oncologist. 2004; 9: 617632.
  • 21
    Sorlie T,Tibshirani R,Parker J, et al. Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003; 100: 84188423.
  • 22
    Nielsen TO,Hsu FD,Jensen K, et al. Immunohistochemical and clinical characterization of the basal-like subtype of invasive breast carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004; 10: 53675374.
  • 23
    Harris L,Fritsche H,Mennel R, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 update of recommendations for the use of tumor markers in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 52875312.