• 1
    Gurney J,Swensen A,Bulterys M: Malignant bone tumors. In: Ries L,Smith M,Gurney J, et al, eds. Cancer Incidence and Survival among Children and Adolescents: United States SEER Program 1975-1995. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program; 1999: 99110.
  • 2
    Robison LL,Green DM,Hudson M, et al. Long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Cancer. 2005; 104: 25572564.
  • 3
    Gentet JC,Brunat-Mentigny M,Demaille MC, et al. Ifosfamide and etoposide in childhood osteosarcoma. A phase II study of the French Society of Paediatric Oncology. Eur J Cancer. 1997; 33: 232237.
  • 4
    Goorin AM,Harris MB,Bernstein M, et al. Phase II/III trial of etoposide and high-dose ifosfamide in newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol. 2002; 20: 426433.
  • 5
    Ferguson WS,Harris MB,Goorin AM, et al. Presurgical window of carboplatin and surgery and multidrug chemotherapy for the treatment of newly diagnosed metastatic or unresectable osteosarcoma: Pediatric Oncology Group trial. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001; 23: 340348.
  • 6
    Aung L,Gorlick RG,Shi W, et al. Second malignant neoplasms in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. Cancer. 2002; 95: 17281734.
  • 7
    Pratt CB,Meyer WH,Luo X, et al. Second malignant neoplasms occurring in survivors of osteosarcoma. Cancer. 1997; 80: 960965.
  • 8
    Kolb EA,Kushner BH,Gorlick R, et al. Long-term event-free survival after intensive chemotherapy for Ewing's family of tumors in children and young adults. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 34233430.
  • 9
    Grier HE,Krailo MD,Tarbell NJ, et al. Addition of ifosfamide and etoposide to standard chemotherapy for Ewing's sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of bone. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 694701.
  • 10
    Smith LM,Cox RS,Donaldson SS. Second cancers in long-term survivors of Ewing's sarcoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1992;(274): 275281.
  • 11
    Dunst J,Ahrens S,Paulussen M, et al. Second malignancies after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma: a report of the CESS-studies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998; 42: 379384.
  • 12
    Paulussen M,Ahrens S,Lehnert M, et al. Second malignancies after Ewing tumor treatment in 690 patients from a cooperative German/Austrian/Dutch study. Ann Oncol. 2001; 12: 16191630.
  • 13
    Fuchs B,Valenzuela RG,Petersen IA,Arndt CA,Sim FH. Ewing's sarcoma and the development of secondary malignancies. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003;(415): 8289.
  • 14
    Kuttesch JFJr,Wexler LH,Marcus RB, et al. Second malignancies after Ewing's sarcoma: radiation dose-dependency of secondary sarcomas. J Clin Oncol. 1996; 14: 28182825.
  • 15
    Gray R. A class of k-sample tests for comparing the cumulative incidence of a competing risk. Ann Stat. 1988; 16: 11411154.
  • 16
    Ries L,Eisner M,Kosary C, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2000. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2003. Available at:, 2003. Accessed on September 15, 2008.
  • 17
    Breslow N,Day N. Statistical Methods in Cancer Research. Volume II—The Design and Analysis of Cohort Studies. New York, NY: IARC Press; 1987.
  • 18
    Curtis RE,Freedman DM,Ron E, et al. New Malignancies Among Cancer Survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973-2000. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2006.
  • 19
    Neglia JP,Friedman DL,Yasui Y, et al. Second malignant neoplasms in five-year survivors of childhood cancer: Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93: 618629.
  • 20
    Strong LC,Herson J,Osborne BM, et al. Risk of radiation-related subsequent malignant tumors in survivors of Ewing's sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1979; 62: 14011406.
  • 21
    Tucker MA,D'Angio GJ,Boice JDJr, et al. Bone sarcomas linked to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in children. N Engl J Med. 1987; 317: 588593.
  • 22
    Bacci G,Longhi A,Barbieri E, et al. Second malignancy in 597 patients with Ewing sarcoma of bone treated at a single institution with adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy between 1972 and 1999. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2005; 27: 517520.
  • 23
    Hisada M,Garber JE,Fung CY, et al. Multiple primary cancers in families with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2998; 90: 606611.
  • 24
    Landier W,Bhatia S,Eshelman DA, et al. Development of risk-based guidelines for pediatric cancer survivors: the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines from the Children's Oncology Group Late Effects Committee and Nursing Discipline. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 49794990.
  • 25
    Krailo M,Ertel I,Makley J, et al. A randomized study comparing high-dose methotrexate with moderate-dose methotrexate as components of adjuvant chemotherapy in childhood nonmetastatic osteosarcoma: a report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1987; 15: 6977.
  • 26
    Provisor AJ,Ettinger LJ,Nachman JB, et al. Treatment of nonmetastatic osteosarcoma of the extremity with preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol. 1997; 15: 7684.
  • 27
    Meyers PA,Schwartz CL,Krailo M, et al. Osteosarcoma: a randomized, prospective trial of the addition of ifosfamide and/or muramyl tripeptide to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 20042011.
  • 28
    Goorin AM,Schwartzentruber DJ,Devidas M, et al. Presurgical chemotherapy compared with immediate surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for nonmetastatic osteosarcoma: Pediatric Oncology Group Study POG-8651. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 15741580.
  • 29
    Goorin AM,Gieser P,Ferguson W, et al. Successful phase II trial of etoposide and high dose ifosfamide in newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group trial (POG) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 17: 2056.
  • 30
    Schwartz CL,Wexler LH,Devidas M, et al. P9754 therapeutic intensification in non-metastatic osteosarcoma: a COG trial [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 14S. Abstract 8514.
  • 31
    Granowetter L,Womer R,Devidas M, et al. Comparison of dose intensified and standard dose chemotherapy for the treatment of non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma (ES) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of bone and soft tissue: a Pediatric Oncology Group-Children's Cancer Group phase III trial [abstract]. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2001; 37: 172.
  • 32
    Bernstein ML,Devidas M,Lafreniere D, et al. Intensive therapy with growth factor support for patients with Ewing tumor metastatic at diagnosis: Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Group phase II study 9457—a report from the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 152159.