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Implications for Disparities Reduction
Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008
Published 2008 American Cancer Society
Volume 113, Issue 10, pages 2790–2796, 15 November 2008
How to Cite
Chu, K. C., Chen, M. S., Dignan, M. B., Taylor, E., Partridge, E. and Community Network Program Principal Investigators (2008), Parallels between the development of therapeutic drugs and cancer health disparity programs. Cancer, 113: 2790–2796. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23879
This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
The Community Network Program Principal Investigators are: Terrance Albrecht, PhD (Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute); Claudia Baquet, MD, MPH (University of Maryland School of Medicine); Laura Beebe, PhD (University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center); Dedra Buchwald, MD (University of Washington); Moon S. Chen Jr, PhD, MPH (University of California at Davis Cancer Center); Clayton Chong, MD (Papa Ola Lokahi, HI); Kathryn Coe, PhD (Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona); Graham Colditz, MD, DrPH (Washington University); Mark Dignan, PhD, MPH (University of Kentucky Research Foundation); Paula A. Espinoza, PhD (University of Colorado Health Sciences Center); Paul A. Godley, MD, PhD, MPP (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill); Margaret K. Hargreaves, PhD (Meharry Medical College); James R. Hebert, ScD, MSPH (University of South Carolina Research Foundation); Ronda Henry-Tillman, MD (University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences); Elmer Huerta, MD, MPH (MedStar Research Institute, Washington DC); Judith Kaur, MD, MA (Mayo Clinic College of Medicine); Howard Koh, MD, MPH (Harvard University School of Public Health); Grace X. Ma, PhD (Temple University); Cathy D. Meade, PhD, RN (H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute); Edward Partridge, MD (University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center); Amelie Ramirez, DrPH, MPH (University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio); David Satcher, MD, PhD (Morehouse School of Medicine); Sora Park Tanjasiri, DrPH (California State University); Beti Thompson, PhD (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center); and Victor Williams Tofaeono, MD (Lyndon Baines Johnson Tropical Medical Center, American Samoa).
- Issue published online: 3 NOV 2008
- Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 MAY 2008
- Manuscript Revised: 9 MAY 2008
- Manuscript Received: 28 MAR 2008
- Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities of the National Cancer Institute
- therapeutic drugs;
- cancer health disparity;
- disparities-reducing intervention;
- information dissemination;
- community-based participatory research
There are analogies between the development of therapeutic drugs for cancer and the development of interventions for reducing cancer health disparities. In both cases, it can take between 12 and 15 years for the benefits to become apparent.
The initial preclinical phase of drug development is analogous to the development of community partnerships and helping the community learn about cancer. The preclinical phase of in vitro and in vivo testing is analogous to identifying the disparities in the community. Then clinical testing begins with phase 1, toxicity, and dose-establishing studies. Analogously, community-based participatory research is used to develop disparities–reducing interventions (DRIs) within the community.
The phase 2 clinical studies to determine whether the drug has activity are analogous to the DRI being implemented in the community to determine whether it can cause behavioral changes that will reduce cancer health disparities. If a drug passes phase 1 and 2 studies, phase 3 clinical trials are initiated. These are controlled studies to examine the efficacy of the drug. The similar activity for disparities research is to determine whether the DRI is better than the current standard/usual practice in controlled trials. If the drug is beneficial, the final phase is the dissemination and adoption of the drug. Analogously in disparities, if the DRI is beneficial, it is disseminated and is culturally adapted to other racial/ethnic groups and finally adopted as standard practice.
The process of creating an effective DRI can be envisioned to have 4 stages, which can be used to aid in measuring the progress being made in reducing cancer health disparities. Cancer 2008. Published 2008 by the American Cancer Society.