• 1
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Merck Company Foundation. The State of Aging and Health in America 2007. Whitehouse Station, NJ: The Merck Company Foundation; 2007. Available at and Accessed on October 15, 2007.
  • 2
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program ( Prevalence database: “US Estimated Complete Prevalence Counts on 1/1/2004.” Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, Surveillance Research Program, Statistical Research and Applications Branch, released April 2007, based on the November 2006 SEER data submission.
  • 3
    Yancik R,Wesley MN,Ries LAG, et al. Effect of age and comorbidity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients aged 55 years and older. JAMA. 2001; 285: 885892.
  • 4
    Hewitt M,Rowland JH,Yancik R. Cancer survivors in the United States: age, health, and disability. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003; 58: 8291.
  • 5
    Meyerhardt JA,Catalano PJ,Haller DG, et al. Impact of diabetes mellitus on outcomes in patients with colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 433440.
  • 6
    Swain SM,Whaley FS,Ewer MS. Congestive heart failure in patients treated with doxorubicin. Cancer. 2003; 97: 28692879.
  • 7
    Muss HB,Woolf S,Berry D, et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy in older and younger women with lymph node-positive breast cancer. JAMA. 2005; 293: 10731081.
  • 8
    Fozard JL,Gordon-Salant S. Sensory and perceptual changes with aging. In: BirrenJE,SchaieKW, eds. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging.5th ed. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press; 2001.
  • 9
    Boss GR,Seegmiller JE. Age-related physiological changes and their clinical significance. West J Med. 1981; 135: 434440.
  • 10
    Costa JPT,McCrae RR. Set like plaster? Evidence for the stability of adult personality. In: HeathertonTF,WeinbergerJL, eds. Can Personality Change? Washington, DC: APA; 1994: 2140.
  • 11
    Baltes PB,Smith J,Staudinger UM. Wisdom and successful aging. In: SondereggerTB, ed. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln, Neb: University of Nebraska Press; 1992: 123167.
  • 12
    Bellizzi KM. Expressions of generativity and post-traumatic growth in adult cancer survivors. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2004; 58: 247267.
  • 13
    Rowland JH. Developmental stage and adaptation: adult model. In: HollandJH,RowlandJH, eds. Handbook of Psychooncology. Psychological Care of the Patient with Cancer. New York: Oxford University Press; 1989: 2543.
  • 14
    Baltes PB,Baltes MM. Psychological perspectives on successful aging: a model of selective optimization with compensation. In: BaltesPB,BaltesMM, eds. Successful Aging: Perspectives From the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1990: 134.
  • 15
    Cartensen LL. Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychol Aging. 1992; 7: 331338.
  • 16
    Lockenhoff CE,Cartensen LL. Socioemotional selectivity theory, aging, and health: the increasingly delicate balance between regulating emotions and making tough choices. J Pers. 2004; 72: 13951424.
  • 17
    Brandtstaedter J,Renner G. Tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment: explication of age-related analysis of assimilative and accomodative strategies of coping. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1990; 65: 5867.
  • 18
    Robb C,Haley WE,Balducci L, et al. Impact of breast cancer survivorship on quality of life in older women. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2007; 62: 8491.
  • 19
    Cimprich B,Ronis DL,Martinez-Ramos G. Age at diagnosis and quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Cancer Pract. 2002; 10: 8593.
  • 20
    Ganz PA,Guadagnoli E,Landrum MB, et al. Breast cancer in older women: quality of life and psychosocial adjustment in the 15 months after diagnosis. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 40274033.
  • 21
    Blank TO,Bellizzi KM. After prostate cancer: predictors of well being among long-term prostate cancer survivors. Cancer. 2006; 106: 21282135.
  • 22
    Eton D,Lepore S. Prostate cancer and health-related quality of life: a review of the literature. Psychooncology. 2002; 11: 307326.
  • 23
    Clough-Gorr KM,Ganz PA,Silliman RA. Older breast cancer survivors: factors associated with change in emotional well-being. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 13341340.
  • 24
    Deimling G,Bowman K,Sterns S, et al. Cancer-related health worries and psychological distress among older adult, long-term cancer survivors. Psychooncology. 2006; 15: 306320.
  • 25
    Deimling GT,Schaefer M,Kahana B, et al. Racial differences in the health of older adult long-term cancer survivors. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2002; 24: 7794.
  • 26
    Deimling GT,Sterns S,Bowman KF, et al. Functioning and activity participation restrictions among older adult, long-term cancer survivors. Cancer Invest. 2007; 25: 106116.
  • 27
    Kurtz M,Kurtz L,Stommel M, et al. Physical functioning and depression among older persons with cancer. Cancer Pract. 2001; 9: 1118.
  • 28
    Keating NL,Norredam M,Landrum MB, et al. Physical and mental health status of older long-term cancer survivors. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005; 53: 21452152.
  • 29
    Koroukian SM,Murray P,Madigan E. Comorbidity, disability, and geriatric syndromes in elderly cancer patients receiving home health care. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 23042310.
  • 30
    Baker F,Haffer SC,Denniston M. Health-related quality of life of cancer and noncancer patients in Medicare managed care. Cancer. 2003; 97: 674681.
  • 31
    Sweeney C,Schmitz KH,Lazovich D, et al. Functional limitations in elderly female cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 521529.
  • 32
    Hammerlid E,Taft C. Health-related quality of life in long-term head and neck cancer survivors: a comparison with general population norms. Br J Cancer. 2001; 84: 149156.
  • 33
    Chirikos TN,Russell-Jacobs A,Jacobsen PB. Functional impairment and the economic consequences of female breast cancer. Women Health. 2002; 36: 120.
  • 34
    HewittM,GreenfieldS,StovallE, eds. From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine and National Research Council of the National Academies; 2006.
  • 35
    Institute of Medicine. Cancer in Elderly People: Workshop Proceedings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2007.
  • 36
    Lichtman SM,Balducci L,Aapro M. Geriatric oncology: a field coming of age. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 18211823.
  • 37
    Robison L. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a resource for research of long-term outcomes among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Minn Med. 2005; 88: 4549.
  • 38
    Seematter-Bagnoud L,Santos-Eggimann B. Population-based cohorts of the 50s and over: a summary of worldwide previous and ongoing studies for research on health in ageing. Eur J Ageing. 2006; 3: 4159.
  • 39
    Garman KS,Pieper CF,Seo P, et al. Function in elderly cancer survivors depends on comorbidities. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003; 58: 11191124.
  • 40
    Eton D,Lepore S,Helgeson V. Early quality of life in patients with localized prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 2001; 92: 14511459.
  • 41
    Stoller EP,Longino CF. Going home or leaving home? The impact of person and place ties on anticipated counterstream migration. Gerontologist. 2001; 41: 96102.
  • 42
    Biggar JC,Longino CF,Flynn BC. Elderly interstate migration: the impact on sending and receiving states, 1965-1970. Res Aging. 1980; 2: 217232.
  • 43
    Hillner BE,Mandelblatt J. Caring for older women with breast cancer: can observational research fill the clinical trial gap? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98: 660661.
  • 44
    Bellizzi KM,Rowland JH. The role of comorbidity, symptoms and age in the health of older survivors following treatment for cancer. Aging Health. 2007; 3: 625635.
  • 45
    Wingo PA,Howe HL,Thun MJ, et al. A national framework for cancer surveillance in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 2005; 16: 151170.
  • 46
    Fitzsimmons D. What are we trying to measure? Rethinking approaches to health outcome assessment for the older person with cancer. Eur J Cancer Care. 2004; 13: 416423.
  • 47
    Hahn EA,Cella D. Health outcomes assessment in vulnerable populations: measurement challenges and recommendations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 84: S35S42.
  • 48
    Bowling A. Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality. J Public Health. 2005; 27: 281291.
  • 49
    Krysan M,Schuman H,Scott LJ, et al. Response rates and response content in mail versus face-face surveys. Public Opin Q. 1994; 58: 381399.
  • 50
    Stanley B,Guido J,Stanley M, et al. The elderly patient and informed consent. Empirical findings. JAMA. 1984; 252: 13021306.
  • 51
    Addington-Hall J,Kalra L. Who should measure quality of life? BMJ. 2001; 322: 14171420.
  • 52
    Brach JS,Van Swearingen JM,Newman AB,Kriska AM. Identifying early decline of physical function in community-dwelling older women: performance-based and self-report measures. Phys Ther. 2002; 82: 320328.
  • 53
    Cress ME,Schechtman KB,Mulrow CD, et al. Relationship between physical performance and self-perceived physical function. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995; 43: 93101.
  • 54
    Gerstorf D,Smith J,Baltes PB. A systemic-wholistic approach to differential aging: longitudinal findings from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychol Aging. 2006; 21: 645663.
  • 55
    Courneya KS,Vallance JKH,McNeely ML, et al. Exercise issues in older cancer survivors. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2004; 51: 249261.
  • 56
    Rao AV,Demark-Wahnefried W. The older cancer survivor. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2006; 60: 131143.
  • 57
    Mustian KM,Morrow GR,Carroll JK, et al. Integrative nonpharmacological behavioral interventions for the management of cancer-related fatigue. Oncologist. 2007; 12: 5267.
  • 58
    Bellizzi KM,Rowland JH,Jeffery DD, et al. Health behaviors of cancer survivors: examining opportunities for cancer control intervention. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 88848893.
  • 59
    McDougal GL. Memory improvement program for elderly cancer survivors. Geriatr Nurs. 2001; 22: 185190.
  • 60
    Demark-Wahnefried W,Clipp EC,Morey MC, et al. Lifestyle intervention development study to improve physical function in older adults with cancer: outcomes from Project LEAD. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 34653473.
  • 61
    Roth A,Modi R. Psychiatric issues in older cancer survivors. Oncol Hematol. 2003; 48: 185197.
  • 62
    Rosenberg IH,Miller JW. Nutritional factors in physical and cognitive functions of elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992; 55: 1237S1243S.
  • 63
    Enger SM,Thwin SS,Buist DSM, et al. Breast cancer treatment of older women in integrated health care settings. JClin Oncol. 2006; 24: 43774383.
  • 64
    Greenfield S,Blanco DM,Elashoff RE, et al. Patterns of care related to age of breast cancer patients. JAMA. 1987; 257: 27662770.
  • 65
    Balducci L. Aging, frailty, and chemotherapy. Cancer Control. 2007; 14: 712.
  • 66
    Bruchim I,Altaras M,Fishman A. Age contrasts in clinical characteristics and pattern of care in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2002; 86: 274278.
  • 67
    Lewis JH,Kilgore ML,Goldman DP, et al. Participation of patients 65 years of age or older in cancer clinical trials. JClin Oncol. 2003; 21: 13831389.
  • 68
    Extermann M,Overcash J,Lyman GH, et al. Comorbidity and functional status are independent in older cancer patients. J Clin Oncol. 1998; 16: 15821587.
  • 69
    Charlson ME,Pompei P,Ales KL, et al. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chronic Dis. 1987; 40: 373383.
  • 70
    Linn BS,Linn MW,Gurel L. Cumulative illness rating scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1968; 16: 622626.
  • 71
    Albertsen PC,Fryback DG,Storer BE, et al. Long-term survival among men with conservatively treated localized prostate cancer. Cancer. 1995; 274: 626631.
  • 72
    Crooks V,Waller S,Smith T, et al. The use of the Karnofsky Performance Scale in determining outcomes and risk in geriatric outpatients. J Gerontol. 1991; 46: M139M144.
  • 73
    Oken M,Creech R,Tormey D, et al. Toxicity and response criteria of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Am J Clin Oncol. 1982; 5: 649655.
  • 74
    Katz S,Ford AB,Moskowitz RW, et al. Studies of illness in the aged. The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA. 1963; 21: 914919.
  • 75
    Rosow I,Breslau NA. A Guttman health scale for the aged. J Gerontol. 1966; 21: 556559.
  • 76
    Nagi SZ. An epidemiology of disability among adults in the United States. Milbank Q. 1976; 54: 439468.
  • 77
    Turvey CL,Wallace RB,Herzog R. A revised CES-D measure of depressive symptoms and a DSM-based measure of major depressive episodes in the elderly. Int Psychogeriatr. 1999; 11: 139148.
  • 78
    Andersen EM,Malmgren JA,Carter WB, et al. Screening for depression in well older adults: evaluation of a short form of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale). Am J Prev Med. 1994; 10: 7784.
  • 79
    Ware JJ,Kosinski M,Gandek B. SF-36 Health Survey: Manual and Interpretation Guide. Lincoln, RI: QualityMetrics Inc; 2000.
  • 80
    Fried LP,Tangen CM,Walston J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56: 146157.
  • 81
    Cohen HJ,Harris T,Pieper CF. Coagulation and activation of inflammatory pathways in the development of functional decline and mortality in the elderly. Am J Med. 2003; 114: 180187.
  • 82
    Ferrucci L,Corsi A,Lauretani F, et al. The origins of age-related proinflammatory state. Blood. 2005; 105: 22942299.
  • 83
    Altman DG. Better reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT statement. BMJ. 1996; 313: 570571.
  • 84
    Erikson C,Salsberg E,Forte G, et al. Future supply and demand for oncologists: challenges to assuring access to oncology services. J Oncol Pract. 2007; 3: 7986.
  • 85
    American Geriatrics Society and the Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs. A clinical imperative for an aging population, pt I. Ann Long-Term Care. 2005; 13: 1822.
  • 86
    Oeffinger KC,McCabe MS. Models for delivering survivorship care. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 51175124.
  • 87
    Terret C,Zulian GB,Naiem A, et al. Multidisciplinary approach to the geriatric oncology patient. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 18761881.
  • 88
    Snyder CF,Earle CC,Herbert RJ,Neville BA,Frick KD. The journey from cancer patient to cancer survivor: a 5-year longitudinal study [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 18S. Abstract 6501.
  • 89
    Boyle DA. A review of the evidence base of an evolving science: gero-oncology nursing. In: MussHB,HunterCP,JohnsonKA, eds. Treatment and Management of Cancer in the Elderly. New York: Taylor and Francis; 2006.