Sex and race in bladder cancer: What we have learned and future directions


  • See referenced original article on pages 68–74, this issue.


After controlling for prognostic variables, women and African Americans present with more advanced bladder cancer and have worse cancer-specific survival than other patient populations. Clinicians must focus on social factors influencing this disparity and on increasing public awareness and education to help standardize the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer for all patients.