• 1
    The Medical Research Council Brain Tumor Working Party. Randomized trial of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine in the adjuvant treatment of high-grade astrocytoma: a medical research Council Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 19: 509-518.
  • 2
    Prados MD, Scott C, Curran WJ Jr, Nelson DF, Leibel S, Kramer S. Procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy for anaplastic astrocytoma: a retrospective review of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocols comparing survival with carmustine or PCV adjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 3389-3395.
  • 3
    Westphal M, Hilt DC, Bortey E, et al. A phase 3 trial of local chemotherapy with biodegradable Carmustine (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel wafers) in patients with primary malignant glioma. Neuro Oncol. 2003; 5: 79-88.
  • 4
    Grossman SA, O'Neill A, Grunnet M, et al. Phase III study comparing 3 cycles of infusional carmustine and cisplatin followed by radiation therapy with radiation therapy and concurrent carmustine in patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial 2394. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 1485-1491.
  • 5
    Prados MD, Levin V. Biology and treatment of malignant glioma. Semin Oncol. 2000; 27( suppl 3): 1-10.
  • 6
    Gutin PH, Prados MD, Phillips TL, et al. External irradiation followed by an interstitial high activity iodine-125 implant “boost” in the initial treatment of malignant gliomas: NCOG Study 6G82-2. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991; 21: 601.
  • 7
    Kornblith PD, Welch WC, Bradley MK. The future of therapy for glioblastoma. Surg Neurol. 1993; 39: 538-543.
  • 8
    Loeffler JS, Alexander E, Shea WM, et al. Radiosurgery as part of the initial management of patients with malignant gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 1992; 10: 1379-1385.
  • 9
    Prados MD, Gutin PH, Phillips TL, et al. Interstitial brachytherapy for newly diagnosed patients with malignant gliomas: the UCSF experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992; 24: 593.
  • 10
    Levin VA, Silver P, Hannigan J, et al. Superiority of post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy with CCNU, procarbazine, and vincristine (PCV) over BCNU for anaplastic gliomas: NCOG 6G61 final report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1990; 18: 321-324.
  • 11
    Stewart LA. Chemotherapy in adult high-grade glioma: a systemic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from 12 randomized trials. Lancet. 2002; 359: 1011-1018.
  • 12
    Fine HA, Dear KB, Loeffler JS, et al. Meta-analysis of radiation therapy and without chemotherapy for malignant gliomas in adults. Cancer. 1993; 71: 2585-2597.
  • 13
    Wong ET, Hess KR, Gleason MJ, et al. Outcomes and prognostic factors in recurrent glioma patients enrolled onto phase II clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 2572-2578.
  • 14
    Yung WKA, Mechtler L, Gleason MJ. Intravenous carboplatin for recurrent malignant gliomas: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. 1991; 9: 860.
  • 15
    Allen JC, Walker R, Luks E, et al. Carboplatin and recurrent childhood brain tumors. J Clin Oncol. 1987; 5: 759-763.
  • 16
    Yung WK, Prados MD, Yaya-Tur R, et al. Multicenter phase II trial of temozolomide in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma at first relapse. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 2762-2771.
  • 17
    See SJ, Levin VA, Yung A, et al. 13-cis-Retinoic acid in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neuro Oncol. 2004; 6: 253-258.
  • 18
    Allen JC, Helson L. High-dose cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for recurrent CNS tumors in children. J Neurosurg. 1981; 55: 749-756.
  • 19
    Longee DC, Friedman HS, Albright RE, et al. Treatment of patients with recurrent gliomas with cyclophosphamide and vincristine. J Neurosurg. 1990; 72: 583-588.
  • 20
    Chamberlain MC, Tsao-Wei D. Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme: salvage therapy with cyclophosphamide. Cancer. 2004; 100: 1213-1220.
  • 21
    Macdonald DR, Cascino TL, Schold SC, et al. Response criteria for phase II studies of supratentorial malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol. 1990; 8: 1277-1280.
  • 22
    Prados MD, Gutin PH, Phillips TL, et al. Highly anaplastic astrocytoma: a review of 357 patients treated between 1977 and 1989. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992; 23: 3-8.
  • 23
    Tortosa A, Vinolas N, Villa S, et al. Prognostic implications of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features in patients with anaplastic gliomas. Cancer. 2003; 97: 1063-1071.
  • 24
    Chamberlain M, Glantz MJ. Salvage chemotherapy with CPT-11 for recurrent temozolomide-refractory 1p19q co-deleted anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Cancer. 2008; 112: 2038-2045.
  • 25
    Stupp R, Mason WP, Van Den Bent MJ, et al. Concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme. Conclusive results of a randomized phase III trial by the EORTC Brain & RT Groups and NCIC Clinical Trial Groups. J Clin Oncol. 2004; 22: 1s.
  • 26
    Brem H, Piantadosi S, Burger PC, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of safety and efficacy of intraoperative controlled delivery by biodegradable polymers of chemotherapy for recurrent gliomas. Lancet. 1995; 345: 1008-1012.
  • 27
    Jaeckle KA, Hess KR, Yung A, et al. Phase II evaluation of temozolomide and 13-cis-retinoic acid for the treatment of recurrent and progressive malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium study. J Clin Oncol. 2003; 21: 2305-2311.
  • 28
    Stark-Vance V. Bevacizumab and CPT-11 in the treatment of relapsed malignant glioma. Neuro Oncol. 2005; 7: 369.
  • 29
    Pope WB, Lai A, Nghiemphu P, Mischel P, Cloughesy TF. MRI in patients with high-grade gliomas treated with bevacizumab and chemotherapy. Neurology. 2006; 66: 1258-1260.
  • 30
    Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Herndon JE II, et al. Phase II trial of bevacizumab and irinotecan in recurrent malignant glioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13: 1253-1259.
  • 31
    Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Herndon JE, et al. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 4722-4729.
  • 32
    Chen C, Silverman DHS, Geist C, et al. Predicting treatment response of malignant gliomas to bevacizumab and irinotecan by imaging proliferation with [18F] fluorothymidine positron emission tomography: a pilot study. J Clin Oncol. 2007; 25: 4714-4721.
  • 33
    Norden AD, Young GS, Setayesh K, et al. Bevacizumab for recurrent malignant glioma: efficacy, toxicity and patterns of recurrence. Neurology. 2008; 70: 779-787.
  • 34
    Cloughesy T, Prados MD, Mikkelsen T, et al. A phase 2 randomized non-comparative clinical trial of the effect of bevacizumab alone or in combination with irinotecan on 6-month progression free survival in recurrent treatment refractory glioblastoma [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 91s.
  • 35
    Miller RG Jr. Survival Analysis. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1981: 114-118.
  • 36
    Pike MC. Contribution to the discussion on the paper by R. Peto and J. Peto, “Asymptotically efficient rank invariant procedures.” J R Stat Soc (Series A). 1972; 135: 201-203.
  • 37
    Berry G, Kitchin RM, Mock PA. A comparison of two simple hazard ratio estimators based on the logrank test. Stat Med. 1991; 10: 749-755.
  • 38
    Lawless JF. Statistical Models and Methods for Lifetime Data. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1982: 345-354.
  • 39
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation form incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958; 53: 457-481.
  • 40
    Cairncross G, Berkey B, Shaw E, et al. Phase III trial of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone for pure and mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma: Intergroup Radiation Oncology Group trial 9402. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 2707-2714.
  • 41
    van den Bent MJ, Carpentier AF, Brandes AA, et al. Adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine improves progression free survival but not overall survival in newly diagnosed anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas: a randomized European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 2715-2722.
  • 42
    Batchelor TT, Gilbert MR, Supko JG, et al. Phase 2 study of weekly irinotecan in adults with recurrent malignant glioma: final report of NABTT 97-11. Neuro Oncol. 2004; 6: 21-27.
  • 43
    Buckner JC, Reid JM, Wright K, et al. Irinotecan in the treatment of glioma patients: current and future studies of the North Cancer Central Treatment Group. Cancer. 2003; 97: 2352-2358.
  • 44
    Chamberlain MC. Salvage chemotherapy with CPT-11 for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncol. 2002; 56: 183-188.
  • 45
    Cloughesy TF, Filka E, Kuhn J, et al. Two studies evaluating irinotecan treatment for recurrent malignant glioma using an every 3-week regimen. Cancer. 2003; 97: 2381-2386.
  • 46
    Friedman HS, Petros WP, Friedman AH, et al. Irinotecan therapy in adults with progressive malignant glioma. J Clin Oncol. 1999; 17: 1516-1525.
  • 47
    Prados MD, Yung WKA, Jaeckle KA, et al. Phase 1 trial of irinotecan (CPT-11) in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: a North American Brain Tumor Consortium study. Neuro Oncol. 2004; 6: 44-54.
  • 48
    Soffieti R, Nobile M, Rida F, et al. Second-line treatment with carboplatin for recurrent or progressive oligodendroglial tumors after PCV chemotherapy: a phase II study. Cancer. 2004; 15: 807-813.
  • 49
    Brandes AA, Basso U, Vastola F, et al. Carboplatin and teniposide as third-line chemotherapy in patients with recurrent oligodendroglioma or oligoastrocytoma: a phase II study. Ann Oncol. 2003; 14: 1727-1731.
  • 50
    Batchelor TT, Sorensen AG, di Tomaso E, et al. AZD2171, a pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, normalizes tumor vasculature and alleviates edema in glioblastoma patients. Cancer Cell. 2007; 11: 83-95.
  • 51
    Brandes AA, Scelzi E, Salmistraro G, et al. Incidence of risk of thromboembolism during treatment of high-grade gliomas: a prospective study. Eur J Cancer. 1997; 33: 1592-1596.
  • 52
    Marras LC, Geerts WH, Perry JR. The risk of venous thromboembolism is increased throughout the course of malignant glioma: an evidence-based review. Cancer. 2000; 89: 640-646.
  • 53
    Semrad TJ, O'Donnell R, Wun T, et al. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in 9489 patients with malignant glioma. J Neurosurg. 2007; l06: 601-608.
  • 54
    Simanek R, Vormittag R, Hassler M, et al. Venous thromboembolism and survival in patients with high-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol. 2007; 9: 89-95.