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Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
The Immunosuppression, Treatment, Extranodal spread, and Margin status (ITEM) prognostic score to predict outcome and the need to improve survival
Article first published online: 17 FEB 2009
Copyright © 2009 American Cancer Society
Volume 115, Issue 9, pages 1883–1891, 1 May 2009
How to Cite
Oddone, N., Morgan, G. J., Palme, C. E., Perera, L., Shannon, J., Wong, E., Gebski, V. and Veness, M. J. (2009), Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer, 115: 1883–1891. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24208
- Issue published online: 20 APR 2009
- Article first published online: 17 FEB 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 OCT 2008
- Manuscript Revised: 2 OCT 2008
- Manuscript Received: 30 JUL 2008
- head and neck;
- lymph nodes;
- squamous cell carcinoma
The authors propose a prognostic score model using a prospective study of patients with regional metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Two-hundred fifty patients were analyzed using a competing risks model to identify risk factors for survival. A risk score was obtained using the significant coefficients from the regression model, and cutoff points were determined that separated the score into 3 risk groups (low risk, moderate risk, and high risk).
At a median follow-up of 54 months (range, 1.3-212 months) 70 of 250 patients (28%) developed recurrent disease: Most were regional recurrences (51 of 70 patients; 73%) in the treated lymph node basin. After regional recurrence, a majority (73%) died of disease. The following 4 variables were associated significantly with survival: immunosuppression (hazard ratio [HR], 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-7.05), treatment (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.66), extranodal spread (HR, 9.92; 95% CI, 1.28-77.09), and margin status (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.85-3.369); and those 4 variables (immuosuppression, treatment, extranodal spread, and margin status) were used to calculate the ITEM score. The 5-year risk of dying from disease for patients with high-risk (>3.0), moderate-risk (>2.6-3.0), and low-risk (≤2.6) ITEM scores were 56%, 24%, and 6%, respectively. Fifty-six of 250 patients (22%) died from another cause.
Patients who underwent surgery and received adjuvant radiotherapy had a better outcome compared with patients who underwent surgery alone. Patients who had moderate- or high-risk ITEM scores, usually because of extranodal spread and involved excision margins, had a poor outcome. The authors recommend considering these patients for inclusion in adjuvant chemoradiotherapy trials. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society.