• blood-based biomarkers;
  • vascular endothelial growth factor;
  • angiogenesis inhibitors;
  • renal cell carcinoma;
  • circulating endothelial cells


In recent years, there has been significant progress in the clinical development and application of antiangiogenic therapies in renal cell carcinomas, particularly inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Despite this progress, no validated methods are currently available for identifying which patients are most likely to respond to treatment or experience toxic effects, selecting the optimal dose, or determining whether the intended molecular target has been effectively inhibited. However, recent studies have suggested that some of the biomarkers currently under investigation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma for VEGF pathway inhibitors are promising. These biomarkers include circulating proangiogenic factors and receptors; markers of hypoxia and endothelial damage; and cellular populations in peripheral blood, such as circulating endothelial cells. Further preclinical and translational validation studies are still needed to determine their practical utility in the clinical setting. Cancer 2009;115(10 suppl):2346-54. © 2009 American Cancer Society.