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Keywords:

  • radiopharmaceuticals;
  • targeted radiotherapy;
  • osteosarcoma;
  • bone neoplasm

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Samarium-153 ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (153Sm-EDTMP) has been used to treat patients with high-risk osteosarcoma. The purpose of the current study was to determine the maximally tolerated dose of 153Sm-EDTMP that permits hematopoietic recovery within 6 weeks.

METHODS:

Patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma with bone metastases were enrolled in this study. Subjects were treated with increasing doses of 153Sm-EDTMP, beginning with 1.0 millicuries (mCi)/kg and followed initially with 40% increment dose level escalations, using a continual reassessment method for dose escalation and de-escalation with a target dose–limiting toxicity (DLT) rate of 30%. Complete blood counts were monitored weekly, and the primary DLT was defined as failure to achieve an absolute neutrophil count >750/mm3 and a platelet count >75,000/mm3 within 6 weeks of treatment. In addition to assessing toxicity, dosimetry measurements were made to estimate the radiation dose delivered to target lesions.

RESULTS:

The maximally tolerated dose of 153Sm-EDTMP was 44.8 megabecquerel (MBq)/kg (1.21 mCi/kg). DLTs were confined to hematologic toxicities, particularly delayed platelet recovery in 2 patients treated at a dose of 51.8 MBq/kg (1.4 mCi/kg). Grade 2 and 3 pulmonary toxicity (graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria [version 3.0]) as reported in 2 patients (at administered activities of 44.8 MBq/kg and 51.8 MBq/kg) was attributable to progressive pulmonary disease. No other significant nonhematologic toxicities were observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with osteosarcoma who have previously been heavily treated with chemotherapy can be safely administered 153Sm-EDTMP with rapid hematologic recovery. The data from the current study support the development of a future trial to assess the efficacy of combining targeted radiotherapy with cytotoxic chemotherapy as a treatment option for patients with high-risk osteosarcoma. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society.