• 1
    American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging and End Results Reporting. Manual for Staging of Cancer 1977. Chicago, Ill: American Joint Committee on Cancer; 1977.
  • 2
    HermanekP, SobinLH, eds. TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors. 4th ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1987.
  • 3
    BeahrsOH, HensonDE, HutterRVP, MyersMH, eds. AJCC Manual for Staging of Cancer. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1988.
  • 4
    SobinLH, WittekindC, eds. TNM Classification of Malignant Tumors. 6th ed. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons; 2002.
  • 5
    GreeneFL, PageDL, FlemingID, et al. eds. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 2002.
  • 6
    Quirke P, Dudley P, Dixon MF, Williams NS. Local recurrence of rectal adenocarcinoma due to inadequate surgical resection. Histopathologic study of lateral tumour spread and surgical excision. Lancet. 1986; 2: 996-999.
  • 7
    Quirke P, Dixon MF. The prediction of local recurrence in rectal adenocarcinoma by histopathological examination. Int J Colorect Dis. 1988; 3: 127-131.
  • 8
    Hermanek P, Gall FP, Altendorf A. Prognostic grouping in colorectal carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1980; 98: 185-193.
  • 9
    Newland RC, Chapuis PH, Pheils MT, MacPherson JG. The relationship of survival in staging and grading of colorectal carcinoma. Cancer. 1981; 47: 350-357.
  • 10
    Fielding LP, Arsenault PA, Chapuis PH, et al. Clinicopathologic staging for colorectal cancer: an International Documentation System (IDS) and an International Comprehensive Anatomical Terminology (ICAT). J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1991; 6: 325-344.
  • 11
    HermanekP, HensonDJ, HutterRVP, SobinLH, eds. International Union Against Cancer (UICC): TNM Supplement 1993. A Commentary on Uniform Use. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1993.
  • 12
    WittekindC, HensonDE, HutterRVP, HermanekP, eds. International Union Against Cancer (UICC): TNM Supplement. A Commentary on Uniform Use. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons; 2001.
  • 13
    WittekindC, HensonDE, HutterRVP, GreeneFL, SobinLH, eds. International Union Against Cancer (UICC): TNM Supplement. A Commentary on Uniform Use. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons; 2003.
  • 14
    Hermanek P, Wittekind C. The pathologist and the residual tumor (R) classification. Pathol Res Pract. 1994; 190: 115-123.
  • 15
    Wittekind C, Compton CC, Greene FL, Sobin LH. TNM residual tumor classification revisited. Cancer. 2002; 94: 2511-2516.
  • 16
    Adam IJ, Mohamdee MO, Martin IG, et al. Role of circumferential margin involvement in the local recurrence of rectal cancer. Lancet. 1994; 344: 707-711.
  • 17
    Hall NR, Finan PJ, Al-Jaberi T, et al. Circumferential margin involvement after mesorectal excision of rectal cancer: predictor of survival but not local recurrence? Dis Colon Rectum. 1998; 41: 979-983.
  • 18
    Hermanek P, Junginger T, Merkel S, Oberholzer K. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with rectal carcinoma: effectiveness in selection for neoadjuvant treatment. Recent Res Dev Cancer. 2006; 8: 39-56.
  • 19
    Nagtegaal I, Quirke P. What is the role for the circumferential margin the modern treatment of rectal cancer? J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26: 303-312.
  • 20
    Compton C, Fenoglio-Preiser CM, Pettigrew N, Fielding LP. American Joint Committee on Cancer Prognostic Factors Consensus Conference: Colorectal Working Group. Cancer. 2000; 88: 1739-1757.
  • 21
    Compton C. Pathologic prognostic factors in the recurrence of rectal cancer. Clin Colorect Cancer. 2002; 2: 149-160.
  • 22
    Compton C. Colorectal carcinoma. Diagnostic, prognostic and molecular factors. Mod Pathol. 2003; 16: 376-385.
  • 23
    Dent PF, Haboubi N, Chapuis PH, et al. Assessing the evidence for an association between circumferential tumour clearance and local recurrence after resection of rectal cancer. Colorectal Dis. 2007; 9: 112-122.
  • 24
    Royal College of Pathology. Standards and datasets for reporting cancers. Available at: Accessed April 2009.
  • 25
    Sagar PM, Johnston D, McMahon MJ, et al. Significance of the circumferential resection margin involvement after oesophagectomy for cancer. Br J Surg. 1993; 80: 1386-1388.
  • 26
    Dexter SP, Sue-Ling H, McMahon MJ, et al. Circumferential resection margin involvement: an independent predictor of survival following surgery for oesophageal cancer. Gut. 2001; 48: 667-670.
  • 27
    Griffiths EA, Brummel Z, Gorthi G, et al. The prognostic value of circumferential resection margin involvement in oesophageal malignancy. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006; 32: 413-419.
  • 28
    Sujendran V, Wheeler J, Baron R, et al. Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on circumferential margin positivity and its impact on prognosis in patients with resectable oesophageal cancer. Br J Surg. 2008; 95: 191-194.
  • 29
    Verbeke CS, Leitch D, Menon KV, et al. Redefining the R1 resection in pancreatic cancer. Br J Surg. 2006; 93: 1232-1237.
  • 30
    Nagtegaal ID, Marijnen CAM, Kranenbarg EK, et al. Circumferential margin involvement is still an important predictor of local recurrence in rectal carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002; 26: 350-357.
  • 31
    Birbeck KF, Macklin CP, Tiffin NJ, et al. Rates of circumferential resection margin involvement vary between surgeons and predict outcomes in rectal cancer surgery. Ann Surg. 2002; 235: 449-457.
  • 32
    Glynne-Jones R, Mawdsley S, Novell R. The clinical significance of the circumferential resection margin following preoperative pelvic chemo-radiation in rectal cancer: why we need a common language. Colorectal Dis. 2006; 8: 800-807.
  • 33
    Gosens MJEM, van Krieken JHJM, Marijnen CAM, et al. Improvement of staging by combining tumor and treatment parameters: the value for prognostication in rectal cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 5: 907-1003.
  • 34
    Daniels IR, MERCURY Study Group. MRI predicts surgical resection margin status in patients with rectal cancer: results from the MERCURY study [abstract]. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005; 48: 686.
  • 35
    Quirke P. Limitations of existing systems of staging for rectal cancer: the forgotten margin. In: SoreideO, NorsteinJ, eds. Rectal Cancer Surgery. Optimisation–Standardisation–Documentation. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 1997: 63-81.
  • 36
    Brown G, Daniels IR. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer: the MERCURY Research Project. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2005; 105: 58-74.
  • 37
    MERCURY Study Group. Diagnostic accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging in predicting curative resection of rectal cancer: prospective observational study [serial online]. BMJ. 2006; 333: 779.
  • 38
    Guillou PJ, Quirke P, Thorpe H, et al. Short-term endpoints of conventional versus laparoscopic-assisted surgery in patients with colorectal cancer (MRC Classic Trial): multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2005; 365: 1718-1726.
  • 39
    Mawdsley S, Glynne-Jones R, Grainger J, et al. Can histopathologic assessment of circumferential margin after preoperative pelvic chemoradiotherapy for T3-T4 rectal cancer predict for 3-year disease-free survival? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2005; 63: 745-752.
  • 40
    Sebag-Montefiore D. Developments in the use of chemotherapy in rectal cancer. Colorectal Dis. 2006; 8( suppl 3): 14-17.
  • 41
    Bouvet M, Milas M, Giacco GG, et al. Predictors of recurrence after local excision and postoperative chemoradiation therapy of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999; 6: 26-32.
  • 42
    Wagner G, Hermanek P, Wittekind C, Sinn HP. Organspezifische Tumordokumentation. 2. Aufl. Empfehlungen zu Dokumentationsinhalten fur Studien. Internetfassung (“OTD-2-Internet”). Frankfurt, Germany: Deutsche Krebsgesellschaft; 2002. Available at: Accessed March 2009.
  • 43
    Berufsverband Deutscher Pathologen und Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Pathologie. Anleitungen zur pathologisch-anatomischen Diagnostik des kolorektalen Karzinoms, Vers. 2.0. Gelsenkirchen, Germany: Berufsverband Deutscher Pathologen; 2007. Available at: Accessed April 2009.
  • 44
    Borschitz T, Junginger T. Bericht zum 1. Workshop zur lokalen Exzision von Rektumkarzinomen. Zbl Chir. 2007; 132: 99-105.
  • 45
    Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group (ABCSG) Gemeinsam mit ACO/ASSO, OGCOGHOOGPOGROORG. Empfehlungen zu Diagnostik und multimodaler Primartherapie des Rektumkarzinoms 2004. Wien Klin Wschr. 2005; 117: 154-171.