• 1
    Jemal A,Murray T,Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2005. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005; 55: 10-30.
  • 2
    Jemal A,Clegg LX,Ward E, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2001, with a special feature regarding survival. Cancer. 2004; 101: 3-27.
  • 3
    Cress RD,Morris CR,Wolfe BM. Cancer of the colon and rectum in California: trends in incidence by race/ethnicity, stage, and subsite. Prev Med. 2000; 31: 447-453.
  • 4
    Puerto Rico Department of Health. Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry. Stat Fact Sheet. Cancer of the colon and rectum. Available at: Recto.pdf. Accessed on June 19, 2008.
  • 5
    RiesLAG, MelbertD, KrapchoM, et al, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2005. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2008.
  • 6
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures for Hispanics/Latinos 2003–2005. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2005.
  • 7
    Martinez I,Torres R,Frias Z. Cancer incidence in the United States of Puerto Rico. Cancer Res. 1975; 35: 3265-3271.
  • 8
    Rosenwaike I. Cancer mortality among Puerto Rican-born residents in New York City. Am J Epidemiol. 1984; 119: 177-185.
  • 9
    Shai D. Cancer mortality, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status: 2 New York City groups. Public Health Rep. 1986; 101: 547-552.
  • 10
    Mallin K,Anderson K. Cancer mortality in Illinois Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants, 1979–1984. Int J Cancer. 1988; 41: 670-676.
  • 11
    Polednak AP. Cancer incidence in the Puerto Rican-born population of Long Island, New York. Am J Public Health. 1991; 88: 1405-1407.
  • 12
    Polednak AP. Cancer incidence in the Puerto Rican-born population of Connecticut. Cancer. 1992; 70: 1172-1176.
  • 13
    Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry. Puerto Rico Cancer Incidence File (January, 2008). San Juan, PR: Division of Epidemiology, Puerto Rico Department of Health; 2008.
  • 14
    Martinez I,Torres Llauger R. Experience with the cancer registry in Puerto Rico [in Spanish]. Bol Asoc Med PR. 1991; 83: 258-260.
  • 15
    Fritz G,Percy C,Jack A,Sobon LH,Parkin MD. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. 3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.
  • 16
    Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry. Puerto Rico Mortality File (released August 2006). San Juan, PR: Division of Statistical Analysis, Auxiliary Secretarial for Planning and Development, Puerto Rico Department of Health; 2006.
  • 17
    Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER Cancer Incidence Public-use Database, 1973–2002 ed (based on the November 2004 submission). Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2004.
  • 18
    Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. Policy for Calculating Hispanic Mortality. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2002.
  • 19
    Waller LA,Gotway CA. Applied Spatial Statistics for Public Health Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
  • 20
    Kim HJ,Fay MP,Feuer EJ,Midthune DN. Permutation tests for joinpoint regression with applications to cancer rates. Stat Med. 2000; 19: 335-351.
  • 21
    Tiwari RC,Clegg LX,Zou Z. Efficient interval estimation for age-adjusted cancer rates. Stat Methods Med Res. 2006; 15: 547-569.
  • 22
    Fleiss J,Levin B,Park M. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2003.
  • 23
    Canto MT,Chu K. Annual cancer incidence rates for Hispanics in the United States: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results, 1992–1996. Cancer. 2000; 88: 2642-2652.
  • 24
    Nazario CM,Figueroa-Valles N,Rosario RV. Breast cancer patterns and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer among Puerto Rican females. PR Health Sci J. 2000; 19: 7-13.
  • 25
    Polendak AP. Racial and ethnic differences in disease. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1989: 281-283.
  • 26
    Neuhouser ML,Thompson B,Coronado GD,Solomon CC. Higher fat intake and lower fruit and vegetables intakes are associated with greater acculturation among Mexicans living in Washington State. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004; 104: 51-57.
  • 27
    Abraido-Lanza AF,Chao MT,Florez KR. Do healthy behaviors decline with greater acculturation? Implications for the Latino mortality paradox. Soc Sci Med. 2005; 61: 1243-1255.
  • 28
    Otero-Sabogal R,Sabogal F,Perez-Stable EJ,Hiatt RA. Dietary practices, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior: ethnic, sex, and acculturation differences. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1995; 18: 73-82.
  • 29
    Therrien M,Ramirez RR. The Hispanic Population in the United States. Washington, DC: US Census Bureau; 2001.
  • 30
    Holtzman D,Powell-Griner E,Bolen JC,Rhodes L. State and sex-specific prevalence of selected characteristics—Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996 and 1997. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 2000; 49: 1-39.
  • 31
    Hughes E,McCracken M,Roberts H, et al. Surveillance for certain health behaviors among states and selected local areas—Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2004. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 2006; 55: 1-124.
  • 32
    Ho GY,Oian H,Kim MY, et al. Health disparities between island and mainland Puerto Ricans. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2006; 19: 331-339.
  • 33
    Perez-Cardona C,Perez-Perdomo R. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rican adults: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1999. PR Health Sci J. 2001; 20: 147-155.
  • 34
    De Jesus-Monge W,Zhao R,Gonzalez-Keelan C,Hamilton S,Rodriguez-Bigas M,Cruz-Correa M. Mismatch repair proteins and colorectal cancer in Hispanics [abstract]. Gastroenterology. 2008; 134( suppl 1).
  • 35
    Niessen RC,Berends MJ,Wu J, et al. Identification of mismatch repair gene mutations in young patients with colorectal cancer and in patients with multiple tumours associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Gut. 2006; 55: 1781-1788.
  • 36
    Jin HY,Liu X,Li VK, et al. Detection of mismatch repair gene germline mutation carrier among Chinese population with colorectal cancer [serial online]. BMC Cancer. 2008; 8: 44.
  • 37
    Mao X,Bigham A,Mei R, et al. A genomewide admixture mapping panel for Hispanic/Latino populations. Am J Hum Genet. 2007; 80: 1171-1178.
  • 38
    Tang H,Choudhry S,Mei R, et al. Recent genetic selection in the ancestral admixture of Puerto Ricans. Am J Hum Genet. 2007; 81: 626-633.
  • 39
    Coups EJ,Manne SL,Meropol NJ,Weiberg DS. Multiple behavioral risk factors for colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer screening status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16: 510-516.
  • 40
    Smith R,Cokkinides V,Webb O. Cancer screening in the United States, 2008: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and cancer screening issues. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 161-179.
  • 41
    Levin B,Lieberman D,McFarland B, et al. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin. 2008; 58: 130-160.
  • 42
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2006.
  • 43
    Puerto Rico Department of Health. Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry. Top Ten Cancer Sites, Puerto Rico, 2003. Available at:,%202003.pdf. Accessed on July 22, 3008.