• 1
    Ries LAG, Melbert D, Krapcho M, et al, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2005. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute; 2008.
  • 2
    Saraiya M, Ahmed F, Krishnan S, Richards TB, Unger ER, Lawson HW. Cervical cancer incidence in a prevaccine era in the United States, 1998-2002. Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 109( 2 pt 1): 360-370.
  • 3
    Smith HO, Tiffany MF, Qualls CR, Key CR. The rising incidence of adenocarcinoma relative to squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix in the United States—a 24-year population-based study. Gynecol Oncol. 2000; 78: 97-105.
  • 4
    Wang SS, Sherman ME, Hildesheim A, Lacey JV Jr, Devesa S. Cervical adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma incidence trends among white women and black women in the United States for 1976-2000. Cancer. 2004; 100: 1035-1044.
  • 5
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2004 Incidence and Mortality [web-based report]. Atlanta, Ga: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2007.
  • 6
    American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2008. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society; 2008.
  • 7
    U.S. Census Bureau. Current Population Reports: Population Projections of the United States by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1995 to 2050. P25-1130. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census; 1996.
  • 8
    Tiwari RC, Clegg LX, Zou Z. Efficient interval estimation for age-adjusted cancer rates. Stat Methods Med Res. 2006; 15: 547-569.
  • 9
    Watson M, Saraiya M, Huang Y, et al. Burden of cervical cancer in the United States, 1998-2003. Cancer. 2008; 113: 2855-2864.
  • 10
    Benard VB, Coughlin SS, Thompson T, Richardson LC. Cervical cancer incidence in the United States by area of residence, 1998 2001. Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 110: 681-686.
  • 11
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Ga: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2002.
  • 12
    Yabroff KR, Lawrence WF, King JC, et al. Geographic disparities in cervical cancer mortality: what are the roles of risk factor prevalence, screening, and use of recommended treatment? J Rural Health. 2005; 21: 149-157.
  • 13
    Swan J, Breen N, Coates RJ, Rimer BK, Lee NC. Progress in cancer screening practices in the United States: results from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Cancer. 2003; 97: 1528-1540.
  • 14
    Benard VB, Eheman CR, Lawson HW, et al. Cervical screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, 1995-2001. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 103: 564-571.
  • 15
    Benard VB, Lawson HW, Eheman CR, Anderson C, Helsel W. Adherence to guidelines for follow-up of low-grade cytologic abnormalities among medically underserved women. Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105: 1323-1328.
  • 16
    McDougall JA, Madeleine MM, Daling JR, Li CI. Racial and ethnic disparities in cervical cancer incidence rates in the United States, 1992-2003. Cancer Causes Control. 2007; 18: 1175-1186.
  • 17
    Barry J, Breen N. The importance of place of residence in predicting late-stage diagnosis of breast or cervical cancer. Health Place. 2005; 11: 15-29.
  • 18
    Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK. Persistent area socioeconomic disparities in U.S. incidence of cervical cancer, mortality, stage, and survival, 1975-2000. Cancer. 2004; 101: 1051-1057.
  • 19
    Selvin E, Brett KM. Breast and cervical cancer screening: sociodemographic predictors among white, black, and Hispanic women. Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 618-623.
  • 20
    Samuel-Hodge CD, Headen SW, Skelly AH, et al. Influences on day-to-day self-management of type 2 diabetes among African-American women: spirituality, the multicaregiver role, and other social context factors. Diabetes Care. 2000; 23: 928-933.
  • 21
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Screening for Cervical Cancer: Recommendations and Rationale. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. AHRQ publication 03–515A. Available at: Accessed February 26, 2008.
  • 22
    Guzman B. The Hispanic Population: Census 2000 Brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2001.
  • 23
    Ramirez RR. We the People: Hispanics in the United States. Census 2000 Special Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2004.
  • 24
    Pew Hispanic Center. Cubans in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center; 2006.
  • 25
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A Demographic and Health Snapshot of the U.S. Hispanic/Latino Population. 2002 National Hispanic Health Leadership Summit. Atlanta, Ga: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2002.
  • 26
    Arbyn M, Bergeron C, Klinkhamer P, Martin-Hirsch P, Siebers AG, Bulten J. Liquid compared with conventional cervical cytology: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 111: 167-177.
  • 27
    Renshaw AA, Mody DR, Lozano RL, et al. Detection of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix in Papanicolaou tests: comparison of diagnostic accuracy with other high-grade lesions. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004; 128: 153-157.
  • 28
    Davey E, Barratt A, Irwig L, et al. Effect of study design and quality on unsatisfactory rates, cytology classifications, and accuracy in liquid-based versus conventional cervical cytology: a systematic review. Lancet. 2006; 367: 122-132.
  • 29
    Krane JF, Granter SR, Trask CE, Hogan CL, Lee KR. Papanicolaou smear sensitivity for the detection of adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a study of 49 cases. Cancer. 2001; 93: 8-15.
  • 30
    McPhee SJ, Nguyen TT, Shema SJ, et al. Validation of recall of breast and cervical cancer screening by women in an ethnically diverse population. Prev Med. 2002; 35: 463-473.
  • 31
    Paskett ED, Tatum CM, Mack DW, Hoen H, Case LD, Velez R. Validation of self-reported breast and cervical cancer screening tests among low-income minority women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996; 5: 721-726.
  • 32
    Suarez L, Goldman DA, Weiss NS. Validity of Pap smear and mammogram self-reports in a low-income Hispanic population. Am J Prev Med. 1995; 11: 94-98.
  • 33
    Keshavarz H, Hillis SD, Kieke BA, Marchbanks PA. Hysterectomy surveillance—United States, 1994-1999. MMWR Surveill Summ 2002; 51( SS05): 1-7.
  • 34
    Merrill RM. Hysterectomy Surveillance in the United States, 1997 through 2005. Med Sci Monit. 2008; 14: CR24-CR31.
  • 35
    Whiteman MK, Hillis SD, Jamieson DJ, et al. Inpatient hysterectomy surveillance in the United States, 2000-2004 [serial online]. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 198: 34.e1-34.e7.