• 1
    Loehrer PJSr, Einhorn LH, Elson PJ, et al. A randomized comparison of cisplatin alone or in combination with methotrexate, vinblastine, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a cooperative group study. J Clin Oncol. 1992; 10: 1066-1073.
  • 2
    von der Maase H, Hansen SW, Roberts JT, et al. Gemcitabine and cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic bladder cancer: results of a large, randomized, multinational, multicenter, phase III study. J Clin Oncol. 2000; 18: 3068-3077.
  • 3
    von der Maase H, Sengelov L, Roberts JT, et al. Long-term survival results of a randomized trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin, with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23: 4602-4608.
  • 4
    Sternberg CN, Donat SM, Bellmunt J, et al. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer: treatment guidelines for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and metastatic cancer. Urology. 2007; 69: 62-79.
  • 5
    Garcia JA, Dreicer R. Systemic chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer: update and controversies. J Clin Oncol. 2006; 24: 5545-5551.
  • 6
    Iaffailoi RV, Milano A, Caponigro F. Therapy of metastatic bladder carcinoma. Ann Oncol. 2007; 18( supp 6): vi153-vi156.
  • 7
    Fahy J, Duflos A, Ribet JP, et al. Vinca alkaloids in superacidic media: a method for creating a new family of antitumor derivatives. J Am Chem Soc. 1997; 119: 8576-8577.
  • 8
    Fahy J. Modifications in the “upper” velbanamine part of the Vinca alkaloids have major implications for tubulin interacting activities. Curr Pharm Des. 2001; 7: 1181-1197.
  • 9
    Hill BT, Fiebig HH, Waud WR, et al. Superior in vivo experimental antitumour activity of vinflunine, relative to vinorelbine, in a panel of human tumour xenografts. Eur J Cancer. 1999; 35: 512-520.
  • 10
    Kruczynski A, Colpaert F, Tarayre JP, et al. Preclinical in vivo antitumor activity of vinflunine, a novel fluorinated Vinca alkaloid. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1998; 41: 437-447.
  • 11
    Bonfil RD, Russo DM, Binda MM, et al. Higher antitumor activity of vinflunine than vinorelbine against an orthotopic murine model of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urol Oncol. 2002; 7: 159-166.
  • 12
    Culine S, Theodore C, De Santis M, et al. A phase II study of vinflunine in bladder cancer patients progressing after first-line platinum-containing regimen. Br J Cancer. 2006; 94: 1395-1401.
  • 13
    Bellmunt Molins J, von der Maase H, Theodore C, et al. Randomised phase III trial of vinflunine (V) plus best supportive care (B) vs B alone as 2nd line therapy after a platinum-containing regimen in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium (TCCU) [abstract]. J Clin Oncol. 2008; 26( suppl). Abstract 5028.
  • 14
    World Health Organization. WHO Handbook for Reporting of Cancer Treatment. World Health Organization Offset Pub. No. 48. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organziation; 1979.
  • 15
    Bennouna J, Campone M, Delord JP, et al. Vinflunine: a novel antitubulin agent in solid malignancies. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2005; 14: 1259-1267.